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Where the REALLY Hard Problems Are
 IN J. MYLOPOULOS AND R. REITER (EDS.), PROCEEDINGS OF 12TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON AI (IJCAI91),VOLUME 1
, 1991
"... It is well known that for many NPcomplete problems, such as KSat, etc., typical cases are easy to solve; so that computationally hard cases must be rare (assuming P != NP). This paper shows that NPcomplete problems can be summarized by at least one "order parameter", and that the hard p ..."
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Cited by 681 (1 self)
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It is well known that for many NPcomplete problems, such as KSat, etc., typical cases are easy to solve; so that computationally hard cases must be rare (assuming P != NP). This paper shows that NPcomplete problems can be summarized by at least one "order parameter", and that the hard problems occur at a critical value of such a parameter. This critical value separates two regions of characteristically different properties. For example, for Kcolorability, the critical value separates overconstrained from underconstrained random graphs, and it marks the value at which the probability of a solution changes abruptly from near 0 to near 1. It is the high density of wellseparated almost solutions (local minima) at this boundary that cause search algorithms to "thrash". This boundary is a type of phase transition and we show that it is preserved under mappings between problems. We show that for some P problems either there is no phase transition or it occurs for bounded N (and so bound...
A New Kind of Science
, 2002
"... “Somebody says, ‘You know, you people always say that space is continuous. How do you know when you get to a small enough dimension that there really are enough points in between, that it isn’t just a lot of dots separated by little distances? ’ Or they say, ‘You know those quantum mechanical amplit ..."
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Cited by 850 (0 self)
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“Somebody says, ‘You know, you people always say that space is continuous. How do you know when you get to a small enough dimension that there really are enough points in between, that it isn’t just a lot of dots separated by little distances? ’ Or they say, ‘You know those quantum mechanical
Improving DirectMapped Cache Performance by the Addition of a Small FullyAssociative Cache and Prefetch Buffers
, 1990
"... ..."
Pervasive Computing: Vision and Challenges
 IEEE Personal Communications
, 2001
"... This paper discusses the challenges in computer systems research posed by the emerging field of pervasive computing. It first examines the relationship of this new field to its predecessors: distributed systems and mobile computing. It then identifies four new research thrusts: effective use of smar ..."
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Cited by 670 (20 self)
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of smart spaces, invisibility, localized scalability, and masking uneven conditioning. Next, it sketches a couple of hypothetical pervasive computing scenarios, and uses them to identify key capabilities missing from today's systems. The paper closes with a discussion of the research necessary
Breaking and Fixing the NeedhamSchroeder PublicKey Protocol using FDR
, 1996
"... In this paper we analyse the well known NeedhamSchroeder PublicKey Protocol using FDR, a refinement checker for CSP. We use FDR to discover an attack upon the protocol, which allows an intruder to impersonate another agent. We adapt the protocol, and then use FDR to show that the new protocol is s ..."
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Cited by 716 (13 self)
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is secure, at least for a small system. Finally we prove a result which tells us that if this small system is secure, then so is a system of arbitrary size. 1 Introduction In a distributed computer system, it is necessary to have some mechanism whereby a pair of agents can be assured of each other
The Role of Emotion in Believable Agents
 Communications of the ACM
, 1994
"... Articial intelligence researchers attempting to create engaging apparently living creatures may nd important insight in the work of artists who have explored the idea of believable character In particular appropriately timed and clearly expressed emotion is a central requirement for believable ch ..."
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Cited by 548 (1 self)
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are among those artists who have sought to create believable characters and the Disney animators of the s made great strides toward this goal The rst page of the enormous classic reference work on Disney animation Thomas and Johnston begins with these words Disney animation makes audiences really
Digital GameBased Learning
"... [Green and Bavelier, 2003] has grabbed national attention for suggesting that playing “action ” video and computer games has the positive effect of enhancing students ’ visual selective attention. But that finding is just one small part of a more important message that all parents and educators need ..."
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Cited by 519 (0 self)
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[Green and Bavelier, 2003] has grabbed national attention for suggesting that playing “action ” video and computer games has the positive effect of enhancing students ’ visual selective attention. But that finding is just one small part of a more important message that all parents and educators
Usability Analysis of Visual Programming Environments: a `cognitive dimensions' framework
 JOURNAL OF VISUAL LANGUAGES AND COMPUTING
, 1996
"... The cognitive dimensions framework is a broadbrush evaluation technique for interactive devices and for noninteractive notations. It sets out a small vocabulary of terms designed to capture the cognitivelyrelevant aspects of structure, and shows how they can be traded off against each other. T ..."
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Cited by 510 (13 self)
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The cognitive dimensions framework is a broadbrush evaluation technique for interactive devices and for noninteractive notations. It sets out a small vocabulary of terms designed to capture the cognitivelyrelevant aspects of structure, and shows how they can be traded off against each other
A Critical Point For Random Graphs With A Given Degree Sequence
, 2000
"... Given a sequence of nonnegative real numbers 0 ; 1 ; : : : which sum to 1, we consider random graphs having approximately i n vertices of degree i. Essentially, we show that if P i(i \Gamma 2) i ? 0 then such graphs almost surely have a giant component, while if P i(i \Gamma 2) i ! 0 the ..."
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Cited by 511 (8 self)
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then almost surely all components in such graphs are small. We can apply these results to G n;p ; G n;M , and other wellknown models of random graphs. There are also applications related to the chromatic number of sparse random graphs.
Hierarchies from Fluxes in String Compactifications
, 2002
"... Warped compactifications with significant warping provide one of the few known mechanisms for naturally generating large hierarchies of physical scales. We demonstrate that this mechanism is realizable in string theory, and give examples involving orientifold compactifications of IIB string theory a ..."
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Cited by 724 (33 self)
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, and the hierarchy reflects the small scale of chiral symmetry breaking in the dual gauge theory.
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