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Wireless Communications
, 2005
"... Copyright c ○ 2005 by Cambridge University Press. This material is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University ..."
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Cited by 1129 (32 self)
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Copyright c ○ 2005 by Cambridge University Press. This material is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University
Requirements for Internet Hosts  Communication Layers
 RFC1812] [RFC2277] Baker, F., "Requirements for IP Version 4 Routers", RFC 1812
, 1989
"... This RFC is an official specification for the Internet community. It incorporates by reference, amends, corrects, and supplements the primary protocol standards documents relating to hosts. Distribution of this document is unlimited. Summary This is one RFC of a pair that defines and discusses the r ..."
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Cited by 521 (6 self)
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This RFC is an official specification for the Internet community. It incorporates by reference, amends, corrects, and supplements the primary protocol standards documents relating to hosts. Distribution of this document is unlimited. Summary This is one RFC of a pair that defines and discusses the requirements for Internet host software. This RFC covers the communications protocol layers: link layer, IP layer, and transport layer; its companion RFC1123 covers the application and support protocols.
The theory and practice of corporate finance: Evidence from the field
 Journal of Financial Economics
, 2001
"... We survey 392 CFOs about the cost of capital, capital budgeting, and capital structure. Large firms rely heavily on present value techniques and the capital asset pricing model, while small firms are relatively likely to use the payback criterion. We find that a surprising number of firms use their ..."
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Cited by 680 (20 self)
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We survey 392 CFOs about the cost of capital, capital budgeting, and capital structure. Large firms rely heavily on present value techniques and the capital asset pricing model, while small firms are relatively likely to use the payback criterion. We find that a surprising number of firms use their firm risk rather than project risk in evaluating new investments. Firms are concerned about maintaining financial flexibility and a good credit rating when issuing debt, and earnings per share dilution and recent stock price appreciation when issuing equity. We find some support for the peckingorder and tradeoff capital structure hypotheses but little evidence that executives are concerned about asset substitution, asymmetric information, transactions costs, free cash flows, or personal taxes. Key words: capital structure, cost of capital, cost of equity, capital budgeting, discount rates, project valuation, survey. 1 We thank Franklin Allen for his detailed comments on the survey instrument and the overall project. We
SNOPT: An SQP Algorithm For LargeScale Constrained Optimization
, 2002
"... Sequential quadratic programming (SQP) methods have proved highly effective for solving constrained optimization problems with smooth nonlinear functions in the objective and constraints. Here we consider problems with general inequality constraints (linear and nonlinear). We assume that first deriv ..."
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Cited by 582 (23 self)
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Sequential quadratic programming (SQP) methods have proved highly effective for solving constrained optimization problems with smooth nonlinear functions in the objective and constraints. Here we consider problems with general inequality constraints (linear and nonlinear). We assume that first derivatives are available, and that the constraint gradients are sparse. We discuss
Convex Analysis
, 1970
"... In this book we aim to present, in a unified framework, a broad spectrum of mathematical theory that has grown in connection with the study of problems of optimization, equilibrium, control, and stability of linear and nonlinear systems. The title Variational Analysis reflects this breadth. For a lo ..."
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Cited by 5350 (67 self)
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In this book we aim to present, in a unified framework, a broad spectrum of mathematical theory that has grown in connection with the study of problems of optimization, equilibrium, control, and stability of linear and nonlinear systems. The title Variational Analysis reflects this breadth. For a long time, ‘variational ’ problems have been identified mostly with the ‘calculus of variations’. In that venerable subject, built around the minimization of integral functionals, constraints were relatively simple and much of the focus was on infinitedimensional function spaces. A major theme was the exploration of variations around a point, within the bounds imposed by the constraints, in order to help characterize solutions and portray them in terms of ‘variational principles’. Notions of perturbation, approximation and even generalized differentiability were extensively investigated. Variational theory progressed also to the study of socalled stationary points, critical points, and other indications of singularity that a point might have relative to its neighbors, especially in association with existence theorems for differential equations.
Factor Graphs and the SumProduct Algorithm
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 1998
"... A factor graph is a bipartite graph that expresses how a "global" function of many variables factors into a product of "local" functions. Factor graphs subsume many other graphical models including Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, and Tanner graphs. Following one simple c ..."
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Cited by 1787 (72 self)
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A factor graph is a bipartite graph that expresses how a "global" function of many variables factors into a product of "local" functions. Factor graphs subsume many other graphical models including Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, and Tanner graphs. Following one simple computational rule, the sumproduct algorithm operates in factor graphs to computeeither exactly or approximatelyvarious marginal functions by distributed messagepassing in the graph. A wide variety of algorithms developed in artificial intelligence, signal processing, and digital communications can be derived as specific instances of the sumproduct algorithm, including the forward/backward algorithm, the Viterbi algorithm, the iterative "turbo" decoding algorithm, Pearl's belief propagation algorithm for Bayesian networks, the Kalman filter, and certain fast Fourier transform algorithms.
How bad is selfish routing?
 JOURNAL OF THE ACM
, 2002
"... We consider the problem of routing traffic to optimize the performance of a congested network. We are given a network, a rate of traffic between each pair of nodes, and a latency function for each edge specifying the time needed to traverse the edge given its congestion; the objective is to route t ..."
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Cited by 678 (27 self)
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. In this article, we quantify the degradation in network performance due to unregulated traffic. We prove that if the latency of each edge is a linear function of its congestion, then the total latency of the routes chosen by selfish network users is at most 4/3 times the minimum possible total latency (subject
Results 1  10
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