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Space/Time Tradeoffs in Hash Coding with Allowable Errors
 Communications of the ACM
, 1970
"... this paper tradeoffs among certain computational factors in hash coding are analyzed. The paradigm problem considered is that of testing a series of messages onebyone for membership in a given set of messages. Two new hash coding methods are examined and compared with a particular conventional h ..."
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Cited by 2067 (0 self)
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this paper tradeoffs among certain computational factors in hash coding are analyzed. The paradigm problem considered is that of testing a series of messages onebyone for membership in a given set of messages. Two new hash coding methods are examined and compared with a particular conventional
Mining Sequential Patterns: Generalizations and Performance Improvements
 Research Report RJ 9994, IBM Almaden Research
, 1995
"... Abstract. The problem of mining sequential patterns was recently introduced in [3]. We are given a database of sequences, where each sequence is a list of transactions ordered by transactiontime, and each transaction is a set of items. The problem is to discover all sequential patterns with a user ..."
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Cited by 748 (5 self)
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Abstract. The problem of mining sequential patterns was recently introduced in [3]. We are given a database of sequences, where each sequence is a list of transactions ordered by transactiontime, and each transaction is a set of items. The problem is to discover all sequential patterns with a userspeci ed minimum support, where the support of a pattern is the number of datasequences that contain the pattern. An example of a sequential pattern is \5 % of customers bought `Foundation' and `Ringworld ' in one transaction, followed by `Second Foundation ' in a later transaction". We generalize the problem as follows. First, we add time constraints that specify a minimum and/or maximum time period between adjacent elements in a pattern. Second, we relax the restriction that the items in an element of a sequential pattern must come from the same transaction, instead allowing the items to be present in a set of transactions whose transactiontimes are within a userspeci ed time window. Third, given a userde ned taxonomy (isa hierarchy) on items, we allow sequential patterns to include items across all levels of the taxonomy. We present GSP, a new algorithm that discovers these generalized sequential patterns. Empirical evaluation using synthetic and reallife data indicates that GSP is much faster than the AprioriAll algorithm presented in [3]. GSP scales linearly with the number of datasequences, and has very good scaleup properties with respect to the average datasequence size. 1
Theoretical improvements in algorithmic efficiency for network flow problems

, 1972
"... This paper presents new algorithms for the maximum flow problem, the Hitchcock transportation problem, and the general minimumcost flow problem. Upper bounds on ... the numbers of steps in these algorithms are derived, and are shown to compale favorably with upper bounds on the numbers of steps req ..."
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Cited by 565 (0 self)
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This paper presents new algorithms for the maximum flow problem, the Hitchcock transportation problem, and the general minimumcost flow problem. Upper bounds on ... the numbers of steps in these algorithms are derived, and are shown to compale favorably with upper bounds on the numbers of steps required by earlier algorithms. First, the paper states the maximum flow problem, gives the FordFulkerson labeling method for its solution, and points out that an improper choice of flow augmenting paths can lead to severe computational difficulties. Then rules of choice that avoid these difficulties are given. We show that, if each flow augmentation is made along an augmenting path having a minimum number of arcs, then a maximum flow in an nnode network will be obtained after no more than ~(n a n) augmentations; and then we show that if each flow change is chosen to produce a maximum increase in the flow value then, provided the capacities are integral, a maximum flow will be determined within at most 1 + logM/(M1) if(t, S) augmentations, wheref*(t, s) is the value of the maximum flow and M is the maximum number of arcs across a cut. Next a new algorithm is given for the minimumcost flow problem, in which all shortestpath computations are performed on networks with all weights nonnegative. In particular, this
Improved Statistical Alignment Models
 In Proceedings of the 38th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics
, 2000
"... In this paper, we present and compare various singleword based alignment models for statistical machine translation. We discuss the five IBM alignment models, the HiddenMarkov alignment model, smoothing techniques and various modifications. ..."
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Cited by 593 (13 self)
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In this paper, we present and compare various singleword based alignment models for statistical machine translation. We discuss the five IBM alignment models, the HiddenMarkov alignment model, smoothing techniques and various modifications.
Eliciting selfexplanations improves understanding
 Cognitive Science
, 1994
"... Learning involves the integration of new information into existing knowledge. Generoting explanations to oneself (selfexplaining) facilitates that integration process. Previously, selfexplanation has been shown to improve the acquisition of problemsolving skills when studying workedout examples. ..."
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Cited by 556 (22 self)
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Learning involves the integration of new information into existing knowledge. Generoting explanations to oneself (selfexplaining) facilitates that integration process. Previously, selfexplanation has been shown to improve the acquisition of problemsolving skills when studying workedout examples
Efficient implementation of a BDD package
 In Proceedings of the 27th ACM/IEEE conference on Design autamation
, 1991
"... Efficient manipulation of Boolean functions is an important component of many computeraided design tasks. This paper describes a package for manipulating Boolean functions based on the reduced, ordered, binary decision diagram (ROBDD) representation. The package is based on an efficient implementat ..."
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Cited by 500 (9 self)
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implementation of the ifthenelse (ITE) operator. A hash table is used to maintain a strong carwnical form in the ROBDD, and memory use is improved by merging the hash table and the ROBDD into a hybrid data structure. A memory funcfion for the recursive ITE algorithm is implemented using a hashbased cache
PseudoRandom Generation from OneWay Functions
 PROC. 20TH STOC
, 1988
"... Pseudorandom generators are fundamental to many theoretical and applied aspects of computing. We show howto construct a pseudorandom generator from any oneway function. Since it is easy to construct a oneway function from a pseudorandom generator, this result shows that there is a pseudorandom gene ..."
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Cited by 887 (22 self)
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Pseudorandom generators are fundamental to many theoretical and applied aspects of computing. We show howto construct a pseudorandom generator from any oneway function. Since it is easy to construct a oneway function from a pseudorandom generator, this result shows that there is a pseudorandom
Greedy Function Approximation: A Gradient Boosting Machine
 Annals of Statistics
, 2000
"... Function approximation is viewed from the perspective of numerical optimization in function space, rather than parameter space. A connection is made between stagewise additive expansions and steepest{descent minimization. A general gradient{descent \boosting" paradigm is developed for additi ..."
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Cited by 951 (12 self)
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for additive expansions based on any tting criterion. Specic algorithms are presented for least{squares, least{absolute{deviation, and Huber{M loss functions for regression, and multi{class logistic likelihood for classication. Special enhancements are derived for the particular case where the individual
Graphbased algorithms for Boolean function manipulation
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTERS
, 1986
"... In this paper we present a new data structure for representing Boolean functions and an associated set of manipulation algorithms. Functions are represented by directed, acyclic graphs in a manner similar to the representations introduced by Lee [1] and Akers [2], but with further restrictions on th ..."
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Cited by 3499 (47 self)
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In this paper we present a new data structure for representing Boolean functions and an associated set of manipulation algorithms. Functions are represented by directed, acyclic graphs in a manner similar to the representations introduced by Lee [1] and Akers [2], but with further restrictions
Making the most of statistical analyses: Improving interpretation and presentation
 American Journal of Political Science
, 2000
"... Social scientists rarely take full advantage of the information available in their statistical results. As a consequence, they miss opportunities to present quantities that are of greatest substantive interest for their research and express the appropriate degree of certainty about these quantities. ..."
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Cited by 550 (24 self)
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Social scientists rarely take full advantage of the information available in their statistical results. As a consequence, they miss opportunities to present quantities that are of greatest substantive interest for their research and express the appropriate degree of certainty about these quantities. In this article, we offer an approach, built on the technique of statistical simulation, to extract the currently overlooked information from any statistical method and to interpret and present it in a readerfriendly manner. Using this technique requires some expertise,
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