Results 1  10
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3,502
A densitybased algorithm for discovering clusters in large spatial databases with noise
, 1996
"... Clustering algorithms are attractive for the task of class identification in spatial databases. However, the application to large spatial databases rises the following requirements for clustering algorithms: minimal requirements of domain knowledge to determine the input parameters, discovery of clu ..."
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Cited by 1786 (70 self)
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Clustering algorithms are attractive for the task of class identification in spatial databases. However, the application to large spatial databases rises the following requirements for clustering algorithms: minimal requirements of domain knowledge to determine the input parameters, discovery
A gentle tutorial on the EM algorithm and its application to parameter estimation for gaussian mixture and hidden markov models
, 1997
"... We describe the maximumlikelihood parameter estimation problem and how the Expectationform of the EM algorithm as it is often given in the literature. We then develop the EM parameter estimation procedure for two applications: 1) finding the parameters of a mixture of Gaussian densities, and 2) fi ..."
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Cited by 693 (4 self)
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We describe the maximumlikelihood parameter estimation problem and how the Expectationform of the EM algorithm as it is often given in the literature. We then develop the EM parameter estimation procedure for two applications: 1) finding the parameters of a mixture of Gaussian densities, and 2
Mean shift: A robust approach toward feature space analysis
 In PAMI
, 2002
"... A general nonparametric technique is proposed for the analysis of a complex multimodal feature space and to delineate arbitrarily shaped clusters in it. The basic computational module of the technique is an old pattern recognition procedure, the mean shift. We prove for discrete data the convergence ..."
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Cited by 2395 (37 self)
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estimators of location is also established. Algorithms for two lowlevel vision tasks, discontinuity preserving smoothing and image segmentation are described as applications. In these algorithms the only user set parameter is the resolution of the analysis, and either gray level or color images are accepted as input
Mixtures of Probabilistic Principal Component Analysers
, 1998
"... Principal component analysis (PCA) is one of the most popular techniques for processing, compressing and visualising data, although its effectiveness is limited by its global linearity. While nonlinear variants of PCA have been proposed, an alternative paradigm is to capture data complexity by a com ..."
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Cited by 532 (6 self)
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maximumlikelihood framework, based on a specific form of Gaussian latent variable model. This leads to a welldefined mixture model for probabilistic principal component analysers, whose parameters can be determined using an EM algorithm. We discuss the advantages of this model in the context
OPTICS: Ordering Points To Identify the Clustering Structure
, 1999
"... Cluster analysis is a primary method for database mining. It is either used as a standalone tool to get insight into the distribution of a data set, e.g. to focus further analysis and data processing, or as a preprocessing step for other algorithms operating on the detected clusters. Almost all of ..."
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Cited by 527 (51 self)
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of the wellknown clustering algorithms require input parameters which are hard to determine but have a significant influence on the clustering result. Furthermore, for many realdata sets there does not even exist a global parameter setting for which the result of the clustering algorithm describes
Where the REALLY Hard Problems Are
 IN J. MYLOPOULOS AND R. REITER (EDS.), PROCEEDINGS OF 12TH INTERNATIONAL JOINT CONFERENCE ON AI (IJCAI91),VOLUME 1
, 1991
"... It is well known that for many NPcomplete problems, such as KSat, etc., typical cases are easy to solve; so that computationally hard cases must be rare (assuming P != NP). This paper shows that NPcomplete problems can be summarized by at least one "order parameter", and that the hard p ..."
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Cited by 683 (1 self)
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of a solution changes abruptly from near 0 to near 1. It is the high density of wellseparated almost solutions (local minima) at this boundary that cause search algorithms to "thrash". This boundary is a type of phase transition and we show that it is preserved under mappings between
Property Testing and its connection to Learning and Approximation
"... We study the question of determining whether an unknown function has a particular property or is fflfar from any function with that property. A property testing algorithm is given a sample of the value of the function on instances drawn according to some distribution, and possibly may query the fun ..."
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Cited by 475 (67 self)
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the function on instances of its choice. First, we establish some connections between property testing and problems in learning theory. Next, we focus on testing graph properties, and devise algorithms to test whether a graph has properties such as being kcolorable or having a aeclique (clique of density ae
GTM: The generative topographic mapping
 Neural Computation
, 1998
"... Latent variable models represent the probability density of data in a space of several dimensions in terms of a smaller number of latent, or hidden, variables. A familiar example is factor analysis which is based on a linear transformations between the latent space and the data space. In this paper ..."
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Cited by 361 (6 self)
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we introduce a form of nonlinear latent variable model called the Generative Topographic Mapping for which the parameters of the model can be determined using the EM algorithm. GTM provides a principled alternative to the widely used SelfOrganizing Map (SOM) of Kohonen (1982), and overcomes most
Oneshot learning of object categories
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PATTERN ANALYSIS AND MACHINE INTELLIGENCE
, 2006
"... Learning visual models of object categories notoriously requires hundreds or thousands of training examples. We show that it is possible to learn much information about a category from just one, or a handful, of images. The key insight is that, rather than learning from scratch, one can take advant ..."
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Cited by 364 (20 self)
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on the parameters of these models. The posterior model for an object category is obtained by updating the prior in the light of one or more observations. We test a simple implementation of our algorithm on a database of 101 diverse object categories. We compare category models learned by an implementation of our
Support Vector Machines for Classification and Regression
 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHAMPTON, TECHNICAL REPORT
, 1998
"... The problem of empirical data modelling is germane to many engineering applications.
In empirical data modelling a process of induction is used to build up a model of the
system, from which it is hoped to deduce responses of the system that have yet to be observed.
Ultimately the quantity and qualit ..."
Abstract

Cited by 357 (5 self)
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. Consequently
the problem is nearly always ill posed (Poggio et al., 1985) in the sense of Hadamard
(Hadamard, 1923). Traditional neural network approaches have suffered difficulties with
generalisation, producing models that can overfit the data. This is a consequence of the
optimisation algorithms used
Results 1  10
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3,502