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On the Hardness of Decision and Optimisation Problems
, 1998
"... . Recent work on phase transition has detected apparently interesting phenomena in the distribution of hard optimisation problems (find, on some measure, the least m such that the given instance x has a solution of value m) and their corresponding decision problems (determine, for a given bound m wh ..."
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Cited by 10 (5 self)
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. Recent work on phase transition has detected apparently interesting phenomena in the distribution of hard optimisation problems (find, on some measure, the least m such that the given instance x has a solution of value m) and their corresponding decision problems (determine, for a given bound m
Convex Analysis
, 1970
"... In this book we aim to present, in a unified framework, a broad spectrum of mathematical theory that has grown in connection with the study of problems of optimization, equilibrium, control, and stability of linear and nonlinear systems. The title Variational Analysis reflects this breadth. For a lo ..."
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Cited by 5350 (67 self)
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In this book we aim to present, in a unified framework, a broad spectrum of mathematical theory that has grown in connection with the study of problems of optimization, equilibrium, control, and stability of linear and nonlinear systems. The title Variational Analysis reflects this breadth. For a
Maximum Likelihood Linear Transformations for HMMBased Speech Recognition
 Computer Speech and Language
, 1998
"... This paper examines the application of linear transformations for speaker and environmental adaptation in an HMMbased speech recognition system. In particular, transformations that are trained in a maximum likelihood sense on adaptation data are investigated. Other than in the form of a simple bias ..."
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Cited by 538 (65 self)
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This paper examines the application of linear transformations for speaker and environmental adaptation in an HMMbased speech recognition system. In particular, transformations that are trained in a maximum likelihood sense on adaptation data are investigated. Other than in the form of a simple bias, strict linear featurespace transformations are inappropriate in this case. Hence, only modelbased linear transforms are considered. The paper compares the two possible forms of modelbased transforms: (i) unconstrained, where any combination of mean and variance transform may be used, and (ii) constrained, which requires the variance transform to have the same form as the mean transform (sometimes referred to as featurespace transforms). Reestimation formulae for all appropriate cases of transform are given. This includes a new and efficient "full" variance transform and the extension of the constrained modelspace transform from the simple diagonal case to the full or blockdiagonal case. The constrained and unconstrained transforms are evaluated in terms of computational cost, recognition time efficiency, and use for speaker adaptive training. The recognition performance of the two modelspace transforms on a large vocabulary speech recognition task using incremental adaptation is investigated. In addition, initial experiments using the constrained modelspace transform for speaker adaptive training are detailed. 1 The author is now at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598, USA 1
Sparse Bayesian Learning and the Relevance Vector Machine
, 2001
"... This paper introduces a general Bayesian framework for obtaining sparse solutions to regression and classication tasks utilising models linear in the parameters. Although this framework is fully general, we illustrate our approach with a particular specialisation that we denote the `relevance vec ..."
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Cited by 958 (5 self)
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This paper introduces a general Bayesian framework for obtaining sparse solutions to regression and classication tasks utilising models linear in the parameters. Although this framework is fully general, we illustrate our approach with a particular specialisation that we denote the `relevance vector machine' (RVM), a model of identical functional form to the popular and stateoftheart `support vector machine' (SVM). We demonstrate that by exploiting a probabilistic Bayesian learning framework, we can derive accurate prediction models which typically utilise dramatically fewer basis functions than a comparable SVM while oering a number of additional advantages. These include the benets of probabilistic predictions, automatic estimation of `nuisance' parameters, and the facility to utilise arbitrary basis functions (e.g. non`Mercer' kernels).
Valgrind: A framework for heavyweight dynamic binary instrumentation
 In Proceedings of the 2007 Programming Language Design and Implementation Conference
, 2007
"... Dynamic binary instrumentation (DBI) frameworks make it easy to build dynamic binary analysis (DBA) tools such as checkers and profilers. Much of the focus on DBI frameworks has been on performance; little attention has been paid to their capabilities. As a result, we believe the potential of DBI ha ..."
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Cited by 545 (5 self)
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Dynamic binary instrumentation (DBI) frameworks make it easy to build dynamic binary analysis (DBA) tools such as checkers and profilers. Much of the focus on DBI frameworks has been on performance; little attention has been paid to their capabilities. As a result, we believe the potential of DBI has not been fully exploited. In this paper we describe Valgrind, a DBI framework designed for building heavyweight DBA tools. We focus on its unique support for shadow values—a powerful but previously littlestudied and difficulttoimplement DBA technique, which requires a tool to shadow every register and memory value with another value that describes it. This support accounts for several crucial design features that distinguish Valgrind from other DBI frameworks. Because of these features, lightweight tools built with Valgrind run comparatively slowly, but Valgrind can be used to build more interesting, heavyweight tools that are difficult or impossible to build with other DBI frameworks such as Pin and DynamoRIO. Categories and Subject Descriptors D.2.5 [Software Engineering]: Testing and Debugging—debugging aids, monitors; D.3.4
Constraint Logic Programming: A Survey
"... Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a merger of two declarative paradigms: constraint solving and logic programming. Although a relatively new field, CLP has progressed in several quite different directions. In particular, the early fundamental concepts have been adapted to better serve in differe ..."
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Cited by 864 (25 self)
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Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a merger of two declarative paradigms: constraint solving and logic programming. Although a relatively new field, CLP has progressed in several quite different directions. In particular, the early fundamental concepts have been adapted to better serve in different areas of applications. In this survey of CLP, a primary goal is to give a systematic description of the major trends in terms of common fundamental concepts. The three main parts cover the theory, implementation issues, and programming for applications.
The 2005 pascal visual object classes challenge
, 2006
"... Abstract. The PASCAL Visual Object Classes Challenge ran from February to March 2005. The goal of the challenge was to recognize objects from a number of visual object classes in realistic scenes (i.e. not presegmented objects). Four object classes were selected: motorbikes, bicycles, cars and peop ..."
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Cited by 633 (24 self)
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Abstract. The PASCAL Visual Object Classes Challenge ran from February to March 2005. The goal of the challenge was to recognize objects from a number of visual object classes in realistic scenes (i.e. not presegmented objects). Four object classes were selected: motorbikes, bicycles, cars and people. Twelve teams entered the challenge. In this chapter we provide details of the datasets, algorithms used by the teams, evaluation criteria, and results achieved. 1
The Anatomy of a ContextAware Application
 WIRELESS NETWORKS, VOL
, 1999
"... We describe a platform for contextaware computing which enables applications to follow mobile users as they move around a building. The platform is particularly suitable for richly equipped, networked environments. The only item a user is required to carry is a small sensor tag, which identifies th ..."
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Cited by 532 (3 self)
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We describe a platform for contextaware computing which enables applications to follow mobile users as they move around a building. The platform is particularly suitable for richly equipped, networked environments. The only item a user is required to carry is a small sensor tag, which identifies them to the system and locates them accurately in three dimensions. The platform builds a dynamic model of the environment using these location sensors and resource information gathered by telemetry software, and presents it in a form suitable for application programmers. Use of the platform is illustrated through a practical example, which allows a user's current working desktop to follow them as they move around the environment.
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