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Maximum likelihood from incomplete data via the EM algorithm
 JOURNAL OF THE ROYAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY, SERIES B
, 1977
"... A broadly applicable algorithm for computing maximum likelihood estimates from incomplete data is presented at various levels of generality. Theory showing the monotone behaviour of the likelihood and convergence of the algorithm is derived. Many examples are sketched, including missing value situat ..."
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Cited by 11807 (17 self)
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A broadly applicable algorithm for computing maximum likelihood estimates from incomplete data is presented at various levels of generality. Theory showing the monotone behaviour of the likelihood and convergence of the algorithm is derived. Many examples are sketched, including missing value
A Simple, Fast, and Accurate Algorithm to Estimate Large Phylogenies by Maximum Likelihood
, 2003
"... The increase in the number of large data sets and the complexity of current probabilistic sequence evolution models necessitates fast and reliable phylogeny reconstruction methods. We describe a new approach, based on the maximumlikelihood principle, which clearly satisfies these requirements. The ..."
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Cited by 2109 (30 self)
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. The core of this method is a simple hillclimbing algorithm that adjusts tree topology and branch lengths simultaneously. This algorithm starts from an initial tree built by a fast distancebased method and modifies this tree to improve its likelihood at each iteration. Due to this simultaneous adjustment
Maximum Likelihood Linear Transformations for HMMBased Speech Recognition
 Computer Speech and Language
, 1998
"... This paper examines the application of linear transformations for speaker and environmental adaptation in an HMMbased speech recognition system. In particular, transformations that are trained in a maximum likelihood sense on adaptation data are investigated. Other than in the form of a simple bias ..."
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Cited by 538 (65 self)
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This paper examines the application of linear transformations for speaker and environmental adaptation in an HMMbased speech recognition system. In particular, transformations that are trained in a maximum likelihood sense on adaptation data are investigated. Other than in the form of a simple
Maximum Likelihood Phylogenetic Estimation from DNA Sequences with Variable Rates over Sites: Approximate Methods
 J. Mol. Evol
, 1994
"... Two approximate methods are proposed for maximum likelihood phylogenetic estimation, which allow variable rates of substitution across nucleotide sites. Three data sets with quite different characteristics were analyzed to examine empirically the performance of these methods. The first, called ..."
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Cited by 540 (28 self)
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Two approximate methods are proposed for maximum likelihood phylogenetic estimation, which allow variable rates of substitution across nucleotide sites. Three data sets with quite different characteristics were analyzed to examine empirically the performance of these methods. The first, called
A maximum likelihood approach to continuous speech recognition
 IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Machine Intell
, 1983
"... AbstractSpeech recognition is formulated as a problem of maximum likelihood decoding. This formulation requires statistical models of the speech production process. In this paper, we describe a number of statistical models for use in speech recognition. We give special attention to determining the ..."
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Cited by 472 (9 self)
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AbstractSpeech recognition is formulated as a problem of maximum likelihood decoding. This formulation requires statistical models of the speech production process. In this paper, we describe a number of statistical models for use in speech recognition. We give special attention to determining
Paml 4: Phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood
 Mol. Biol. Evol
, 2007
"... PAML, currently in version 4, is a package of programs for phylogenetic analyses of DNA and protein sequences using maximum likelihood (ML). The programs may be used to compare and test phylogenetic trees, but their main strengths lie in the rich repertoire of evolutionary models implemented, which ..."
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Cited by 1161 (26 self)
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PAML, currently in version 4, is a package of programs for phylogenetic analyses of DNA and protein sequences using maximum likelihood (ML). The programs may be used to compare and test phylogenetic trees, but their main strengths lie in the rich repertoire of evolutionary models implemented, which
A View Of The Em Algorithm That Justifies Incremental, Sparse, And Other Variants
 Learning in Graphical Models
, 1998
"... . The EM algorithm performs maximum likelihood estimation for data in which some variables are unobserved. We present a function that resembles negative free energy and show that the M step maximizes this function with respect to the model parameters and the E step maximizes it with respect to the d ..."
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Cited by 988 (18 self)
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. The EM algorithm performs maximum likelihood estimation for data in which some variables are unobserved. We present a function that resembles negative free energy and show that the M step maximizes this function with respect to the model parameters and the E step maximizes it with respect
A gentle tutorial on the EM algorithm and its application to parameter estimation for gaussian mixture and hidden markov models
, 1997
"... We describe the maximumlikelihood parameter estimation problem and how the Expectationform of the EM algorithm as it is often given in the literature. We then develop the EM parameter estimation procedure for two applications: 1) finding the parameters of a mixture of Gaussian densities, and 2) fi ..."
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Cited by 678 (4 self)
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We describe the maximumlikelihood parameter estimation problem and how the Expectationform of the EM algorithm as it is often given in the literature. We then develop the EM parameter estimation procedure for two applications: 1) finding the parameters of a mixture of Gaussian densities, and 2
A Maximum Entropy approach to Natural Language Processing
 COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS
, 1996
"... The concept of maximum entropy can be traced back along multiple threads to Biblical times. Only recently, however, have computers become powerful enough to permit the widescale application of this concept to real world problems in statistical estimation and pattern recognition. In this paper we des ..."
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Cited by 1341 (5 self)
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describe a method for statistical modeling based on maximum entropy. We present a maximumlikelihood approach for automatically constructing maximum entropy models and describe how to implement this approach efficiently, using as examples several problems in natural language processing.
Text Classification from Labeled and Unlabeled Documents using EM
 MACHINE LEARNING
, 1999
"... This paper shows that the accuracy of learned text classifiers can be improved by augmenting a small number of labeled training documents with a large pool of unlabeled documents. This is important because in many text classification problems obtaining training labels is expensive, while large qua ..."
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Cited by 1033 (19 self)
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quantities of unlabeled documents are readily available. We introduce an algorithm for learning from labeled and unlabeled documents based on the combination of ExpectationMaximization (EM) and a naive Bayes classifier. The algorithm first trains a classifier using the available labeled documents
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