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Observational evidence of recent change in the northern highlatitude environment
 Chapin F S III, Osterkamp T, Dyurgerov M, Romanovsky V, Oechel W C, Morison J, Zhang T and Barry R G
, 2000
"... Abstract. Studies from a variety of disciplines document recent change in the northern highlatitude environment. Prompted by predictions of an amplified response of the Arctic to enhanced greenhouse forcing, we present a synthesis of these observations. Pronounced winter and spring warming over nor ..."
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Cited by 252 (13 self)
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Abstract. Studies from a variety of disciplines document recent change in the northern highlatitude environment. Prompted by predictions of an amplified response of the Arctic to enhanced greenhouse forcing, we present a synthesis of these observations. Pronounced winter and spring warming over northern continents since about 1970 is partly compensated by cooling over the northern North Atlantic. Warming is also evident over the central Arctic Ocean. There is a downward tendency in sea ice extent, attended by warming and increased areal extent of the Arctic Ocean’s Atlantic layer. Negative snow cover anomalies have dominated over both continents since the late 1980s and terrestrial precipitation has increased since 1900. Small Arctic glaciers have exhibited generally negative mass balances. While permafrost has warmed in Alaska and Russia, it has cooled in eastern Canada. There is evidence of increased plant growth, attended by greater shrub abundance and northward migration of the tree line. Evidence also suggests that the tundra has changed from a net sink to a net source of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Taken together, these results paint a reasonably coherent picture of change, but their interpretation as signals of enhanced greenhouse warming is open to debate. Many of the environmental records are either short, are of uncertain quality, or provide limited spatial coverage. The recent
A Software Tool for Learning Syntax Andreas Leon Aagaard
, 2011
"... ECTS points. The project was created with supervision by Jørgen Villadsen ..."
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ECTS points. The project was created with supervision by Jørgen Villadsen
unknown title
, 2015
"... acknowledgements: • Prof Paul Ward suggested that we look into something with vhdl to have synergy with ece327. • Prof Mark Aagaard, as the ece327 instructor, consulted throughout the development of this material. • Prof Patrick Lam generously shared his material from the last offering of ece251. • ..."
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acknowledgements: • Prof Paul Ward suggested that we look into something with vhdl to have synergy with ece327. • Prof Mark Aagaard, as the ece327 instructor, consulted throughout the development of this material. • Prof Patrick Lam generously shared his material from the last offering of ece251
Openocean convection: Observations, theory and models
 Rev. Geophys
, 1999
"... Abstract. We review what is known about the convective process in the open ocean, in which the properties of large volumes of water are changed by intermittent, deepreaching convection, triggered by winter storms. Observational, laboratory, and modeling studies reveal a fascinating and complex int ..."
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Cited by 129 (7 self)
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Abstract. We review what is known about the convective process in the open ocean, in which the properties of large volumes of water are changed by intermittent, deepreaching convection, triggered by winter storms. Observational, laboratory, and modeling studies reveal a fascinating and complex interplay of convective and geostrophic scales, the largescale circulation of the ocean, and the prevailing meteorology. Two aspects make ocean convection interesting from a theoretical point of view. First, the timescales of the convective process in the ocean are sufficiently long that it may be modified by the Earth’s rotation; second, the convective process is localized in space so that vertical buoyancy transfer by upright convection can give way to slantwise transfer by baroclinic instability. Moreover, the convec
Theorem Proving with the Real Numbers
, 1996
"... This thesis discusses the use of the real numbers in theorem proving. Typically, theorem provers only support a few `discrete' datatypes such as the natural numbers. However the availability of the real numbers opens up many interesting and important application areas, such as the verification ..."
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Cited by 116 (14 self)
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This thesis discusses the use of the real numbers in theorem proving. Typically, theorem provers only support a few `discrete' datatypes such as the natural numbers. However the availability of the real numbers opens up many interesting and important application areas, such as the verification of floating point hardware and hybrid systems. It also allows the formalization of many more branches of classical mathematics, which is particularly relevant for attempts to inject more rigour into computer algebra systems. Our work is conducted in a version of the HOL theorem prover. We describe the rigorous definitional construction of the real numbers, using a new version of Cantor's method, and the formalization of a significant portion of real analysis. We also describe an advanced derived decision procedure for the `Tarski subset' of real algebra as well as some more modest but practically useful tools for automating explicit calculations and routine linear arithmetic reasoning. Finally,...
CASE STUDY Physiological alterations a s
"... ag ter ex The central alterations include at least three factors. tractile performance (Aagaard et al. 2010). The reduca SpringerOpen Journal ..."
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ag ter ex The central alterations include at least three factors. tractile performance (Aagaard et al. 2010). The reduca SpringerOpen Journal
Formal verification in hardware design: A survey
, 1997
"... In recent years, formal methods have emerged as an alternative approach to ensuring the quality and correctness of hardware designs, overcoming some of the limitations of traditional validation techniques such as simulation and testing. There are two main aspects to the application of formal methods ..."
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Cited by 110 (0 self)
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In recent years, formal methods have emerged as an alternative approach to ensuring the quality and correctness of hardware designs, overcoming some of the limitations of traditional validation techniques such as simulation and testing. There are two main aspects to the application of formal methods in a design process: The formal framework used to specify desired properties of a design, and the verification techniques and tools used to reason about the relationship between a specification and a corresponding implementation. We survey a variety of frameworks and techniques which have been proposed in the literature and applied to actual designs. The specification frameworks we describe include temporal logics, predicate logic, abstraction and refinement, as well as containment between!regular languages. The verification techniques presented include model checking, automatatheoretic techniques, automated theorem proving, and approaches that integrate the above methods.
Isabelle/Isar  a versatile environment for humanreadable formal proof documents
, 2002
"... The basic motivation of this work is to make formal theory developments with machinechecked proofs accessible to a broader audience. Our particular approach is centered around the Isar formal proof language that is intended to support adequate composition of proof documents that are suitable for hu ..."
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Cited by 82 (12 self)
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The basic motivation of this work is to make formal theory developments with machinechecked proofs accessible to a broader audience. Our particular approach is centered around the Isar formal proof language that is intended to support adequate composition of proof documents that are suitable for human consumption. Such primary proofs written in Isar may be both checked by the machine and read by humanbeings; final presentation merely involves trivial pretty printing of the sources. Sound logical foundations of Isar are achieved by interpretation within the generic Natural Deduction framework of Isabelle, reducing all highlevel reasoning steps to primitive inferences. The resulting Isabelle/Isar system...
as
"... he ost ges. Arctic sediments deposited during the Holocene interglacial period (MIS 1), rger interstadial Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO) events (3–4, 8, and 12) contain thermohaline system (Aagaard et al., 1985, 1991; Rudels and sediment chronology, and complex oceanographic changes. ..."
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he ost ges. Arctic sediments deposited during the Holocene interglacial period (MIS 1), rger interstadial Dansgaard–Oeschger (DO) events (3–4, 8, and 12) contain thermohaline system (Aagaard et al., 1985, 1991; Rudels and sediment chronology, and complex oceanographic changes.
Dynamic Energy and Mass Budgets in Biological Systems
, 2000
"... second edition Dynamic Energy Budget theory unifies the commonalities between organisms as prescribed by the implications of energetics, which link different levels of biological organization (cells, organisms and populations). The theory presents simple mechanistic rules that describe the uptake an ..."
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Cited by 80 (1 self)
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second edition Dynamic Energy Budget theory unifies the commonalities between organisms as prescribed by the implications of energetics, which link different levels of biological organization (cells, organisms and populations). The theory presents simple mechanistic rules that describe the uptake and use of energy and nutrients and the consequences for physiological organization throughout an organism’s life cycle, including the relationships between energetics and aging and the effects of toxicants. In this new edition, the theory is broadened to encompass the fluxes of both energy and mass. All living organisms are now covered in a single quantitative framework, the predictions of which are tested against a wide variety of experimental results at the various levels of biological organization. The theory explains many general observations, such as the body size scaling relationships of certain physiological traits, and provides a theoretical basis for the widely used method of indirect calorimetry. In each case, the theory is developed in elementary mathematical terms, but a more detailed discussion of the methodological aspects of mathematical modelling is also included, making the book suitable for biologists and mathematicians with a
Results 1  10
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