### Table 1 Decomposition of Wage Offer Differential

"... In PAGE 4: ... 3. Results Table1 presents results from earnings decompositions as set out by equation (1). Column 1 details the results when a standard set of controls (consistent with previous studies) are used in the earnings equation.... In PAGE 5: ... For example, whilst almost three quarters of the white sample live in a ward with an unemployment rate of less than 10 percent, only just over a quarter of the non-white sample do so. Given the strongly negative way in which unemployment affects employee earnings8, it is no surprise to see the importance of these controls in the decomposition analysis ( Table1 , column 2).9 Local unemployment differences alone explain in excess of one fifth of the wage offer differential.... In PAGE 6: ... Given that seventy percent of the non-white sample have fluent language skills, the crucial distinction would therefore appear to be this latter group relative to those with any degree of impaired English ability. Column 3 of Table1 sees the inclusion of these language controls in the decomposition framework. As might be expected language fluency has a role to play in describing the difference in weekly wages between whites and non-whites.... ..."

### TABLE IV DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION

1997

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### Table 3. Linear Input Demand Equation Estimates

"... In PAGE 23: ...edu Page 22 The first-stage equations contain, in addition to the variables specified, interactions of the education and race dummies and household income estimates with all the program availability and price variables. Results for Educational Attainment Child Health Input Demand Equation Estimates: Linear Specifications The five linear health production input demand equations are reported in Table3 . In all equations, both the sets of socioeconomic variables and the regional health input availability variables contribute significantly to explanatory power.... In PAGE 28: ... The estimates of the production functions presented in Tables 3 and 4 indicated that of the activities considered, delay in seeking prenatal medical care, and smoking during pregnancy, and birth order had significant effects on child health, with such effects somewhat dependent on the age of the mother. The estimates of Table3 suggested that the health-related activities were importantly but differently related to both the income and educational level of the family and mother, respectively, as well as to the program and health services variables. These findings together imply that the nonlinear effects of education on birth weight are the results of the differential effects of schooling on the several input activities.... ..."

### Table 3 Decomposition of US-Country J Differences in Wage Inequality US Differential

2000

"... In PAGE 23: ... Decomposition Results US Labor Market Prices While the descriptive data on wages and test scores suggest that cognitive skill plays a part in explaining the higher level of wage inequality in the US, a more systematic analysis is needed to establish its precise importance. The decompositions shown in Table3 , which use US measured characteristics and other country coefficients and residuals as the base, enable us to assess the overall effect of differences in the distribution of characteristics, labor market prices and residual inequality, in explaining higher US wage inequality, when test score is included in the standard human capital specification (Appendix Table A4 shows results for the same model with the opposite base). We first discuss these results which are based on a model which includes both test scores and education, we then briefly consider alternative specifications and the marginal effect of the distribution of test scores in explaining higher US inequality.... In PAGE 23: ... We first discuss these results which are based on a model which includes both test scores and education, we then briefly consider alternative specifications and the marginal effect of the distribution of test scores in explaining higher US inequality. Each entry in Table3 should be read as a US-other country difference. Thus, for example, the first entry in column 1 indicates that the male 50-10 wage gap is .... In PAGE 24: ... The wage coefficient and wage residual effects are large and positive. Comparing these results to those presented in Table3 indicates that adding industry and 19 Examination of our data reveals that for men, the US distribution of age and education is more compressed at the ... In PAGE 25: ... The results for the human capital specification are presented in Table A5. The average wage coefficients and residual effects are all positive and, with one exception, comparable in magnitude to those in Table3 . The exception is the wage coefficients effect for the female 50-10 gap which explains 5 percent of the US- country j difference in this case.... In PAGE 25: ...able 4 presents summary decomposition results (i.e., average effects) from a variety of alternative specifications of the wage equation where the explanatory variables include: i) test score and age; ii) age and education; iii) test score, age and education. This last specification repeats the summary results from Table3 for comparison. Table 4 also includes an additional column (column 3) giving the marginal effect of test scores in explaining the higher level of US wage inequality.... In PAGE 28: ...ade for each pairwise (i.e., US-other country) comparison for men and for women. The results are presented in Tables 5. Wage coefficients and residuals effects in these models are virtually always positive and are similar in magnitude to those from the uncorrected samples ( Table3 ). We thus conclude that labor market prices are higher in the United States even after correcting for the selectivity of wage samples.... In PAGE 30: ...23 We found that the US still had higher wage differentials than other countries for the 50-10 and 90-50 wage gaps. The Juhn, Murphy and Pierce (1993) decomposition results based on white US subsamples were similar to those in Table3 , with measured prices and residuals both widening the 50-10 and 90- 50 wage gaps in the US relative to the other countries. Measurement Error and Functional Form While, as noted, the IALS found that interrater reliability on test scores was very high (94-97%), it is still possible that measurement error affects our test proficiency measures and therefore the regression coefficients on which the inequality decompositions are based.... ..."

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### Table I. Test Matrices and Their Disciplines Discipline Matrices

2003

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### Table 9 Decomposition of the Sources of Ethnic Inequality, 1998 Reference equation Per capita

"... In PAGE 16: ... It is hardly surprising, then, that ethnic minority households put more emphasis on access to land as a way out of poverty. In Table9 we present the main results of our decomposition analysis. As explained above, this decomposes the sources of differences in per capita expenditure levels between pairs of ethnic groups into a component that is due to different characteristics (age, education, land, gender, location, etc.... In PAGE 17: ... If the sample is confined to those communes where there are both Kinh-Hoa and minority households (the mixed communes), we again find that about 45% of the expenditure per capita differential is attributable to differences in characteristics. However when the equation is estimated with commune fixed effects (section 3 of Table9 ), almost two thirds of the difference in per capita expenditure is due to differences in characteristics. In other words, when we compare Kinh-Hoa with minority households within a given commune, much of the gap between the groups is due to such factors as differences in education.... In PAGE 17: ... So it may make more sense to confine the sample to rural areas and to compute the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition for this subset. The results are shown in sections 4-6 of Table9 . For minority households overall, and for the Central Highland Minorities, about a third of the differences in per capita expenditure is attributable to differences in characteristics such as education or age.... In PAGE 17: ... This proportion is closer to a fifth for Northern Upland minority groups; even if this group had the same characteristics as the Kinh-Hoa majority, four fifths of the per capita expenditure gap would remain.16 Table9 also reveals an interesting result when the living standards of the urban Kinh and the urban Chinese are decomposed. The Chinese are more affluent, but actually have lower levels of education and other observable expenditure-raising characteristics than do the Kinh.... ..."

### Table 8: Oaxaca decomposition of wage differentials, ECHP adults young

"... In PAGE 15: ... Therefore the features influencing a worker to hold a permanent contract and the characteristics of the permanent jobs are better paid than the average, while the opposite holds true for temporary workers. Table8 shows the main figures for the three elements that conform the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, distinguishing between young and adult workers. It can be seen that both young and adult permanent employees register higher hourly earnings than their temporary counterparts.... ..."

### Table 3: Solving linear equations

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