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Financial Dependence and Growth
 American Economic Review
, 1998
"... This paper examines whether nancial development facilitates economic growth by scrutinizing one rationale for such a relationship; that nancial development reduces the costs of external nance to rms. Speci cally, we ask whether industrial sectors that are relatively more in need of external nance de ..."
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Cited by 1043 (29 self)
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develop disproportionately faster in countries with more developed nancial markets. We nd this to be true in a large sample of countries over the 1980s. We show this result is unlikely to be driven by omitted variables, outliers, or reverse causality. (JEL O4, F3, G1) A large literature, dating at least
Homological Algebra of Mirror Symmetry
 in Proceedings of the International Congress of Mathematicians
, 1994
"... Mirror Symmetry was discovered several years ago in string theory as a duality between families of 3dimensional CalabiYau manifolds (more precisely, complex algebraic manifolds possessing holomorphic volume elements without zeroes). The name comes from the symmetry among Hodge numbers. For dual Ca ..."
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Cited by 529 (3 self)
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CalabiYau manifolds V, W of dimension n (not necessarily equal to 3) one has dim H p (V, Ω q) = dim H n−p (W, Ω q). Physicists conjectured that conformal field theories associated with mirror varieties are equivalent. Mathematically, MS is considered now as a relation between numbers of rational curves
Numerical solution of initial boundary value problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media
 IEEE Trans. Antennas and Propagation
, 1966
"... The characteristics of the waves guided along a plane [I] P. S. Epstein, “On the possibility of electromagnetic surface waves, ” Proc. Nat’l dcad. Sciences, vol. 40, pp. 11581165, Deinterface which separates a semiinfinite region of free cember 1954. space from that of a magnetoionic medium are in ..."
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Cited by 1009 (0 self)
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on the boundary of a plasma in a magnetic field, ” Rasprost. Radwvoln i Ionosf., Trudy found that surface waves exist only when w,<wp and NIZMIRAN L’SSR, no. 17(27), pp. 208215, 1960. that also only for angular frequencies which lie bet\\een [4] S. R. Seshadri and A. Hessel, “Radiation from a source near a
PseudoRandom Generation from OneWay Functions
 PROC. 20TH STOC
, 1988
"... Pseudorandom generators are fundamental to many theoretical and applied aspects of computing. We show howto construct a pseudorandom generator from any oneway function. Since it is easy to construct a oneway function from a pseudorandom generator, this result shows that there is a pseudorandom gene ..."
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Cited by 887 (22 self)
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Pseudorandom generators are fundamental to many theoretical and applied aspects of computing. We show howto construct a pseudorandom generator from any oneway function. Since it is easy to construct a oneway function from a pseudorandom generator, this result shows that there is a pseudorandom generator iff there is a oneway function.
Determining the Number of Factors in Approximate Factor Models
, 2000
"... In this paper we develop some statistical theory for factor models of large dimensions. The focus is the determination of the number of factors, which is an unresolved issue in the rapidly growing literature on multifactor models. We propose a panel Cp criterion and show that the number of factors c ..."
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Cited by 538 (29 self)
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In this paper we develop some statistical theory for factor models of large dimensions. The focus is the determination of the number of factors, which is an unresolved issue in the rapidly growing literature on multifactor models. We propose a panel Cp criterion and show that the number of factors can be consistently estimated using the criterion. The theory is developed under the framework of large crosssections (N) and large time dimensions (T). No restriction is imposed on the relation between N and T. Simulations show that the proposed criterion yields almost precise estimates of the number of factors for configurations of the panel data encountered in practice. The idea that variations in a large number of economic variables can be modelled bya small number of reference variables is appealing and is used in manyeconomic analysis. In the finance literature, the arbitrage pricing theory(APT) of Ross (1976) assumes that a small number of factors can be used to explain a large number of asset returns.
Domain Theory
 Handbook of Logic in Computer Science
, 1994
"... Least fixpoints as meanings of recursive definitions. ..."
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Cited by 546 (25 self)
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Least fixpoints as meanings of recursive definitions.
Hierarchies from Fluxes in String Compactifications
, 2002
"... Warped compactifications with significant warping provide one of the few known mechanisms for naturally generating large hierarchies of physical scales. We demonstrate that this mechanism is realizable in string theory, and give examples involving orientifold compactifications of IIB string theory a ..."
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Cited by 724 (33 self)
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and Ftheory compactifications on CalabiYau fourfolds. In each case, the hierarchy of scales is fixed by a choice of RR and NS fluxes in the compact manifold. Our solutions involve compactifications of the KlebanovStrassler gravity dual to a confining N = 1 supersymmetric gauge theory
Theoretical improvements in algorithmic efficiency for network flow problems

, 1972
"... This paper presents new algorithms for the maximum flow problem, the Hitchcock transportation problem, and the general minimumcost flow problem. Upper bounds on ... the numbers of steps in these algorithms are derived, and are shown to compale favorably with upper bounds on the numbers of steps req ..."
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Cited by 565 (0 self)
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in the flow value then, provided the capacities are integral, a maximum flow will be determined within at most 1 + logM/(M1) if(t, S) augmentations, wheref*(t, s) is the value of the maximum flow and M is the maximum number of arcs across a cut. Next a new algorithm is given for the minimumcost flow
Factor Graphs and the SumProduct Algorithm
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 1998
"... A factor graph is a bipartite graph that expresses how a "global" function of many variables factors into a product of "local" functions. Factor graphs subsume many other graphical models including Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, and Tanner graphs. Following one simple c ..."
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Cited by 1787 (72 self)
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be derived as specific instances of the sumproduct algorithm, including the forward/backward algorithm, the Viterbi algorithm, the iterative "turbo" decoding algorithm, Pearl's belief propagation algorithm for Bayesian networks, the Kalman filter, and certain fast Fourier transform algorithms.
Results 1  10
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