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Joshua 4.0: Packing, PRO, and Paraphrases
"... We present Joshua 4.0, the newest version of our opensource decoder for parsingbased statistical machine translation. The main contributions in this release are the introduction of a compact grammar representation based on packed tries, and the integration of our implementation of pairwise ranking ..."
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Cited by 3 (0 self)
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We present Joshua 4.0, the newest version of our opensource decoder for parsingbased statistical machine translation. The main contributions in this release are the introduction of a compact grammar representation based on packed tries, and the integration of our implementation of pairwise
Factor Graphs and the SumProduct Algorithm
 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY
, 1998
"... A factor graph is a bipartite graph that expresses how a "global" function of many variables factors into a product of "local" functions. Factor graphs subsume many other graphical models including Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, and Tanner graphs. Following one simple c ..."
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Cited by 1787 (72 self)
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A factor graph is a bipartite graph that expresses how a "global" function of many variables factors into a product of "local" functions. Factor graphs subsume many other graphical models including Bayesian networks, Markov random fields, and Tanner graphs. Following one simple computational rule, the sumproduct algorithm operates in factor graphs to computeeither exactly or approximatelyvarious marginal functions by distributed messagepassing in the graph. A wide variety of algorithms developed in artificial intelligence, signal processing, and digital communications can be derived as specific instances of the sumproduct algorithm, including the forward/backward algorithm, the Viterbi algorithm, the iterative "turbo" decoding algorithm, Pearl's belief propagation algorithm for Bayesian networks, the Kalman filter, and certain fast Fourier transform algorithms.
Verb Semantics And Lexical Selection
, 1994
"... ... structure. As Levin has addressed (Levin 1985), the decomposition of verbs is proposed for the purposes of accounting for systematic semanticsyntactic correspondences. This results in a series of problems for MT systems: inflexible verb sense definitions; difficulty in handling metaphor and new ..."
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Cited by 520 (4 self)
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... structure. As Levin has addressed (Levin 1985), the decomposition of verbs is proposed for the purposes of accounting for systematic semanticsyntactic correspondences. This results in a series of problems for MT systems: inflexible verb sense definitions; difficulty in handling metaphor and new usages; imprecise lexical selection and insufficient system coverage. It seems one approach is to apply probability methods and statistical models for some of these problems. However, the question reminds: has PSR exhausted the potential of the knowledgebased approach? If not, are there any alternatives that can improve the handling of these problems? We suggest an alternative that represents verb semantic knowledge and accounts for not only finetuned systematic semanticsyntactic correspondences, but also semanticinterpretation correspondences. A verb is not represented by a predicate or simple primitives, but by a set of semantic components that are sensitive to the syntactic altern
Eliciting selfexplanations improves understanding
 Cognitive Science
, 1994
"... Learning involves the integration of new information into existing knowledge. Generoting explanations to oneself (selfexplaining) facilitates that integration process. Previously, selfexplanation has been shown to improve the acquisition of problemsolving skills when studying workedout examples. ..."
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Cited by 556 (22 self)
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Learning involves the integration of new information into existing knowledge. Generoting explanations to oneself (selfexplaining) facilitates that integration process. Previously, selfexplanation has been shown to improve the acquisition of problemsolving skills when studying workedout examples. This study extends that finding, showing that selfexplanation can also be facilitative when it is explicitly promoted, in the context of learning declarative knowledge from an expository text. Without any extensive training, 14 eighthgrade students were merely asked to selfexplain after reading each line of a possage on the human circulatory system. Ten students in the control group read the same text twice, but were not prompted to selfexplain. All of the students were tested for their circulatory system knowledge before and after reading the text. The prompted group had a greater gain from the pretest to the posttest. Moreover, prompted students who generated o large number of selfexplanations (the high explainers) learned with greater understanding than low explainers. Understanding was assessed by answering very complex questions and inducing the function of a component when it was only implicitly stated. Understanding was further captured by a mental model onolysis of the selfexplanation protocols. High explainers all achieved the correct mental model of the circulatory system, whereas many of the unprompted students as well as the low explainers did not. Three processing characteristics of selfexplaining are considered as reasons for the gains in deeper understanding. Preparation of this article was supported in part by an Office of Educational Research and
The interdisciplinary study of coordination
 ACM Computing Surveys
, 1994
"... This survey characterizes an emerging research area, sometimes called coordination theory, that focuses on the interdisciplinary study of coordination. Research in this area uses and extends ideas about coordination from disciplines such as computer science, organization theory, operations research, ..."
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Cited by 773 (21 self)
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. Section 3 summarizes ways of applying a coordination perspective in three different domains: (1) understanding the effects of information technology on human organizations and markets, (2) designing cooperative work tools, and (3) designing distributed and parallel computer systems. In the final section
Toward a model of text comprehension and production
 Psychological Review
, 1978
"... The semantic structure of texts can be described both at the local microlevel and at a more global macrolevel. A model for text comprehension based on this notion accounts for the formation of a coherent semantic text base in terms of a cyclical process constrained by limitations of working memory. ..."
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Cited by 540 (12 self)
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The semantic structure of texts can be described both at the local microlevel and at a more global macrolevel. A model for text comprehension based on this notion accounts for the formation of a coherent semantic text base in terms of a cyclical process constrained by limitations of working memory. Furthermore, the model includes macrooperators, whose purpose is to reduce the information in a text base to its gist, that is, the theoretical macrostructure. These operations are under the control of a schema, which is a theoretical formulation of the comprehender's goals. The macroprocesses are predictable only when the control schema can be made explicit. On the production side, the model is concerned with the generation of recall and summarization protocols. This process is partly reproductive and partly constructive, involving the inverse operation of the macrooperators. The model is applied to a paragraph from a psychological research report, and methods for the empirical testing of the model are developed. The main goal of this article is to describe the system of mental operations that underlie the processes occurring in text comprehension and in the production of recall and summarization protocols. A processing model will be outlined that specifies three sets of operations. First, the meaning elements of a text become
New Directions in Cryptography
, 1976
"... Two kinds of contemporary developments in cryptography are examined. Widening applications of teleprocessing have given rise to a need for new types of cryptographic systems, which minimize the need for secure key distribution channels and supply the equivalent of a written signature. This paper sug ..."
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Cited by 3499 (7 self)
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Two kinds of contemporary developments in cryptography are examined. Widening applications of teleprocessing have given rise to a need for new types of cryptographic systems, which minimize the need for secure key distribution channels and supply the equivalent of a written signature. This paper suggests ways to solve these currently open problems. It also discusses how the theories of communication and computation are beginning to provide the tools to solve cryptographic problems of long standing.
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