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352,657
Toward an instance theory of automatization
 Psychological Review
, 1988
"... This article presents a theory in which automatization is construed as the acquisition of a domainspecific knowledge base, formed of separate representations, instances, of each exposure to the task. Processing is considered automatic if it relies on retrieval of stored instances, which will occur ..."
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Cited by 613 (37 self)
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in everyday mental life. Most of us recognize that we perform routine activities quickly and effortlessly, with little thought and conscious awarenessin short, automatically (James, 1890). As a result, we often perform those activities on "automatic pilot " and turn our minds to other
FastMap: A Fast Algorithm for Indexing, DataMining and Visualization of Traditional and Multimedia Datasets
, 1995
"... A very promising idea for fast searching in traditional and multimedia databases is to map objects into points in kd space, using k featureextraction functions, provided by a domain expert [25]. Thus, we can subsequently use highly finetuned spatial access methods (SAMs), to answer several types ..."
Abstract

Cited by 497 (23 self)
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A very promising idea for fast searching in traditional and multimedia databases is to map objects into points in kd space, using k featureextraction functions, provided by a domain expert [25]. Thus, we can subsequently use highly finetuned spatial access methods (SAMs), to answer several
Halfa century of research on the Stroop effect: An integrative review
 PsychologicalBulletin
, 1991
"... The literature on interference in the Stroop ColorWord Task, covering over 50 years and some 400 studies, is organized and reviewed. In so doing, a set ofl 8 reliable empirical findings is isolated that must be captured by any successful theory of the Stroop effect. Existing theoretical positions a ..."
Abstract

Cited by 621 (14 self)
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The literature on interference in the Stroop ColorWord Task, covering over 50 years and some 400 studies, is organized and reviewed. In so doing, a set ofl 8 reliable empirical findings is isolated that must be captured by any successful theory of the Stroop effect. Existing theoretical positions are summarized and evaluated in view of this critical evidence and the 2 major candidate theoriesrelative speed of processing and automaticity of readingare found to be wanting. It is concluded that recent theories placing the explanatory weight on parallel processing of the irrelevant and the relevant dimensions are likely to be more successful than are earlier theories attempting to locate a single bottleneck in attention. In 1935, J. R. Stroop published his landmark article on attention and interference, an article more influential now than it was then. Why has the Stroop task continued to fascinate us? Perhaps the task is seen as tapping into the primitive operations of cognition, offering clues to the fundamental process of attention. Perhaps the robustness of the phenomenon provides a special challenge to decipher. Together these are powerful attractions
Fronts propagating with curvature dependent speed: algorithms based on Hamilton–Jacobi formulations
 Journal of Computational Physics
, 1988
"... We devise new numerical algorithms, called PSC algorithms, for following fronts propagating with curvaturedependent speed. The speed may be an arbitrary function of curvature, and the front can also be passively advected by an underlying flow. These algorithms approximate the equations of motion, w ..."
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Cited by 1183 (64 self)
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We devise new numerical algorithms, called PSC algorithms, for following fronts propagating with curvaturedependent speed. The speed may be an arbitrary function of curvature, and the front can also be passively advected by an underlying flow. These algorithms approximate the equations of motion, which resemble HamiltonJacobi equations with parabolic righthandsides, by using techniques from the hyperbolic conservation laws. Nonoscillatory schemes of various orders of accuracy are used to solve the equations, providing methods that accurately capture the formation of sharp gradients and cusps in the moving fronts. The algorithms handle topological merging and breaking naturally, work in any number of space dimensions, and do not require that the moving surface be written as a function. The methods can be also used for more general HamiltonJacobitype problems. We demonstrate our algorithms by computing the solution to a variety of surface motion problems. 1
Wrapper Induction for Information Extraction
, 1997
"... The Internet presents numerous sources of useful informationtelephone directories, product catalogs, stock quotes, weather forecasts, etc. Recently, many systems have been built that automatically gather and manipulate such information on a user's behalf. However, these resources are usually ..."
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Cited by 612 (30 self)
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The Internet presents numerous sources of useful informationtelephone directories, product catalogs, stock quotes, weather forecasts, etc. Recently, many systems have been built that automatically gather and manipulate such information on a user's behalf. However, these resources are usually formatted for use by people (e.g., the relevant content is embedded in HTML pages), so extracting their content is difficult. Wrappers are often used for this purpose. A wrapper is a procedure for extracting a particular resource's content. Unfortunately, handcoding wrappers is tedious. We introduce wrapper induction, a technique for automatically constructing wrappers. Our techniques can be described in terms of three main contributions. First, we pose the problem of wrapper construction as one of inductive learn...
Qualitative Researching
, 1996
"... ltaic (PV) electricity production from an intermittent Since 1978, compressed air energy storage (CAES) compressed air can then be released on demand to the CAES plant’s turbogenerator set to generate premium value electricity. The first CAES plant was built in broadened in the ittency of wind g wi ..."
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Cited by 591 (0 self)
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ltaic (PV) electricity production from an intermittent Since 1978, compressed air energy storage (CAES) compressed air can then be released on demand to the CAES plant’s turbogenerator set to generate premium value electricity. The first CAES plant was built in broadened in the ittency of wind g with Cavallo,2 nomic feasibility as turbine (GT) oduction.3–8 The ate underground o the wind farms and shape the
Exact Sampling with Coupled Markov Chains and Applications to Statistical Mechanics
, 1996
"... For many applications it is useful to sample from a finite set of objects in accordance with some particular distribution. One approach is to run an ergodic (i.e., irreducible aperiodic) Markov chain whose stationary distribution is the desired distribution on this set; after the Markov chain has ..."
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Cited by 548 (13 self)
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For many applications it is useful to sample from a finite set of objects in accordance with some particular distribution. One approach is to run an ergodic (i.e., irreducible aperiodic) Markov chain whose stationary distribution is the desired distribution on this set; after the Markov chain has run for M steps, with M sufficiently large, the distribution governing the state of the chain approximates the desired distribution. Unfortunately it can be difficult to determine how large M needs to be. We describe a simple variant of this method that determines on its own when to stop, and that outputs samples in exact accordance with the desired distribution. The method uses couplings, which have also played a role in other sampling schemes; however, rather than running the coupled chains from the present into the future, one runs from a distant point in the past up until the present, where the distance into the past that one needs to go is determined during the running of the al...
Do investmentcash flow sensitivities provide useful measures of financing constraints?
 QUARTERLY JOURNAL OF ECONOMICS
, 1997
"... No. This paper investigates the relationship between financing constraints and investmentcash flow sensitivities by analyzing the firms identified by Fazzari, Hubbard, and Petersen as having unusually high investmentcash flow sensitivities. We Quarterlynd that firms that appear less Quarterlynanci ..."
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Cited by 656 (8 self)
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No. This paper investigates the relationship between financing constraints and investmentcash flow sensitivities by analyzing the firms identified by Fazzari, Hubbard, and Petersen as having unusually high investmentcash flow sensitivities. We Quarterlynd that firms that appear less Quarterlynancially constrained exhibit significantly greater sensitivities than firms that appear more financially constrained. We find this pattern for the entire sample period, subperiods, and individual years. These results (and simple theoretical arguments) suggest that higher sensitivities cannot be interpreted as evidence that firms are more financially constrained. These findings call into question the interpretation of most previous research that uses this methodology. “Our financial position is sound... Most of the company’s funds are generated by operations and these funds grew at an average annual rate of 29 % [over the past 3 years]. Throughout the company’s history this selffinancing concept has not been a constraint on the company’s growth. With recent growth restrained by depressed economic
Bayes Factors
, 1995
"... In a 1935 paper, and in his book Theory of Probability, Jeffreys developed a methodology for quantifying the evidence in favor of a scientific theory. The centerpiece was a number, now called the Bayes factor, which is the posterior odds of the null hypothesis when the prior probability on the null ..."
Abstract

Cited by 1766 (74 self)
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In a 1935 paper, and in his book Theory of Probability, Jeffreys developed a methodology for quantifying the evidence in favor of a scientific theory. The centerpiece was a number, now called the Bayes factor, which is the posterior odds of the null hypothesis when the prior probability on the null is onehalf. Although there has been much discussion of Bayesian hypothesis testing in the context of criticism of P values, less attention has been given to the Bayes factor as a practical tool of applied statistics. In this paper we review and discuss the uses of Bayes factors in the context of five scientific applications in genetics, sports, ecology, sociology and psychology.
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