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341,630
A Guided Tour to Approximate String Matching
 ACM COMPUTING SURVEYS
, 1999
"... We survey the current techniques to cope with the problem of string matching allowing errors. This is becoming a more and more relevant issue for many fast growing areas such as information retrieval and computational biology. We focus on online searching and mostly on edit distance, explaining t ..."
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Cited by 584 (38 self)
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We survey the current techniques to cope with the problem of string matching allowing errors. This is becoming a more and more relevant issue for many fast growing areas such as information retrieval and computational biology. We focus on online searching and mostly on edit distance, explaining
ChernSimons Gauge Theory as a String Theory
, 2003
"... Certain two dimensional topological field theories can be interpreted as string theory backgrounds in which the usual decoupling of ghosts and matter does not hold. Like ordinary string models, these can sometimes be given spacetime interpretations. For instance, threedimensional ChernSimons gaug ..."
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Cited by 551 (14 self)
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Simons gauge theory can arise as a string theory. The worldsheet model in this case involves a topological sigma model. Instanton contributions to the sigma model give rise to Wilson line insertions in the spacetime ChernSimons theory. A certain holomorphic analog of ChernSimons theory can also arise as a
KodairaSpencer theory of gravity and exact results for quantum string amplitudes
 Commun. Math. Phys
, 1994
"... We develop techniques to compute higher loop string amplitudes for twisted N = 2 theories with ĉ = 3 (i.e. the critical case). An important ingredient is the discovery of an anomaly at every genus in decoupling of BRST trivial states, captured to all orders by a master anomaly equation. In a particu ..."
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Cited by 545 (60 self)
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We develop techniques to compute higher loop string amplitudes for twisted N = 2 theories with ĉ = 3 (i.e. the critical case). An important ingredient is the discovery of an anomaly at every genus in decoupling of BRST trivial states, captured to all orders by a master anomaly equation. In a
Trade Liberalization, Exit, and Productivity Improvements: Evidence from Chilean Plants
 Review of Economic Studies
, 2002
"... This paper empirically investigates the effects of liberalized trade on plant productivity in the case of Chile. Chile presents an interesting setting to study this relationship since it underwent a massive trade liberalization that significantly exposed its plants to competition from abroad during ..."
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Cited by 530 (14 self)
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on consistent estimates of the input coefficients. In the second step, I identify the impact of trade on plants’ productivity in a regression framework allowing variation in productivity over time and across tradedand nontradedgoods sectors. Using plantlevel panel data on Chilean manufacturers, I find
Maximum Likelihood Phylogenetic Estimation from DNA Sequences with Variable Rates over Sites: Approximate Methods
 J. Mol. Evol
, 1994
"... Two approximate methods are proposed for maximum likelihood phylogenetic estimation, which allow variable rates of substitution across nucleotide sites. Three data sets with quite different characteristics were analyzed to examine empirically the performance of these methods. The first, called ..."
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Cited by 540 (28 self)
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Two approximate methods are proposed for maximum likelihood phylogenetic estimation, which allow variable rates of substitution across nucleotide sites. Three data sets with quite different characteristics were analyzed to examine empirically the performance of these methods. The first, called the "discrete gamma model," uses several categories of rates to approximate the gamma distribution, with equal probability for each category. The mean of each category is used to represent all the rates falling in the category. The performance of this method is found to be quite good, and four such categories appear to be sufficient to produce both an optimum, or nearoptimum fit by the model to the data, and also an acceptable approximation to the continuous dis tribution. The second method, called "fixedrates mod el," classifies sites into several classes according to their rates predicted assuming the star tree. Sites in different classes are then assumed to be evolving at these fixed rates when other tree topologies are evaluated.
Good ErrorCorrecting Codes based on Very Sparse Matrices
, 1999
"... We study two families of errorcorrecting codes defined in terms of very sparse matrices. "MN" (MacKayNeal) codes are recently invented, and "Gallager codes" were first investigated in 1962, but appear to have been largely forgotten, in spite of their excellent properties. The ..."
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Cited by 741 (23 self)
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. The decoding of both codes can be tackled with a practical sumproduct algorithm. We prove that these codes are "very good," in that sequences of codes exist which, when optimally decoded, achieve information rates up to the Shannon limit. This result holds not only for the binarysymmetric channel
Short signatures from the Weil pairing
, 2001
"... Abstract. We introduce a short signature scheme based on the Computational DiffieHellman assumption on certain elliptic and hyperelliptic curves. The signature length is half the size of a DSA signature for a similar level of security. Our short signature scheme is designed for systems where signa ..."
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Cited by 743 (28 self)
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signatures are typed in by a human or signatures are sent over a lowbandwidth channel. 1
Literate programming
 THE COMPUTER JOURNAL
, 1984
"... The author and his associates have been experimenting for the past several years with a programming language and documentation system called WEB. This paper presents WEB by example, and discusses why the new system appears to be an improvement over previous ones. ..."
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Cited by 549 (3 self)
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The author and his associates have been experimenting for the past several years with a programming language and documentation system called WEB. This paper presents WEB by example, and discusses why the new system appears to be an improvement over previous ones.
2003: Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late Nineteenth Century
 J. Geophysical Research
"... data set, HadISST1, and the nighttime marine air temperature (NMAT) data set, HadMAT1. HadISST1 replaces the global sea ice and sea surface temperature (GISST) data sets and is a unique combination of monthly globally complete fields of SST and sea ice concentration on a 1 ° latitudelongitude grid ..."
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Cited by 517 (3 self)
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procedure, followed by superposition of qualityimproved gridded observations onto the reconstructions to restore local detail. The sea ice fields are made more homogeneous by compensating satellite microwavebased sea ice concentrations for the impact of surface melt effects on retrievals in the Arctic
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