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10,529
Eraser: a dynamic data race detector for multithreaded programs
 ACM Transaction of Computer System
, 1997
"... Multithreaded programming is difficult and error prone. It is easy to make a mistake in synchronization that produces a data race, yet it can be extremely hard to locate this mistake during debugging. This paper describes a new tool, called Eraser, for dynamically detecting data races in lockbased ..."
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Cited by 687 (2 self)
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Multithreaded programming is difficult and error prone. It is easy to make a mistake in synchronization that produces a data race, yet it can be extremely hard to locate this mistake during debugging. This paper describes a new tool, called Eraser, for dynamically detecting data races in lockbased multithreaded programs. Eraser uses binary rewriting techniques to monitor every shared memory reference and verify that consistent locking behavior is observed. We present several case studies, including undergraduate coursework and a multithreaded Web search engine, that demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach. 1
On the Resemblance and Containment of Documents
 In Compression and Complexity of Sequences (SEQUENCES’97
, 1997
"... Given two documents A and B we define two mathematical notions: their resemblance r(A, B)andtheircontainment c(A, B) that seem to capture well the informal notions of "roughly the same" and "roughly contained." The basic idea is to reduce these issues to set intersection probl ..."
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Cited by 499 (7 self)
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Given two documents A and B we define two mathematical notions: their resemblance r(A, B)andtheircontainment c(A, B) that seem to capture well the informal notions of "roughly the same" and "roughly contained." The basic idea is to reduce these issues to set intersection problems that can be easily evaluated by a process of random sampling that can be done independently for each document. Furthermore, the resemblance can be evaluated using a fixed size sample for each document.
A Behavioral Notion of Subtyping
 ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems
, 1994
"... The use of hierarchy is an important component of objectoriented design. Hierarchy allows the use of type families, in which higher level supertypes capture the behavior that all of their subtypes have in common. For this methodology to be effective, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of ..."
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Cited by 514 (18 self)
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The use of hierarchy is an important component of objectoriented design. Hierarchy allows the use of type families, in which higher level supertypes capture the behavior that all of their subtypes have in common. For this methodology to be effective, it is necessary to have a clear understanding of how subtypes and supertypes are related. This paper takes the position that the relationship should ensure that any property proved about supertype objects also holds for its subtype objects. It presents two ways of defining the subtype relation, each of which meets this criterion, and each of which is easy for programmers to use. The subtype relation is based on the specifications of the sub and supertypes; the paper presents a way of specifying types that makes it convenient to define the subtype relation. The paper also discusses the ramifications of this notion of subtyping on the design of type families.
Strategies of Discourse Comprehension
, 1983
"... El Salvador, Guatemala is a, study in black and white. On the left is a collection of extreme MarxistLeninist groups led by what one diplomat calls “a pretty faceless bunch of people.’ ’ On the right is an entrenched elite that has dominated Central America’s most populous country since a CIAbacke ..."
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Cited by 601 (27 self)
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El Salvador, Guatemala is a, study in black and white. On the left is a collection of extreme MarxistLeninist groups led by what one diplomat calls “a pretty faceless bunch of people.’ ’ On the right is an entrenched elite that has dominated Central America’s most populous country since a CIAbacked coup deposed the reformist government of Col. Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. Moderates of the political center. embattled but alive in E1 Salvador, have virtually disappeared in Guatemalajoining more than 30.000 victims of terror over the last tifteen vears. “The situation in Guatemala is much more serious than in EI Salvador, ” declares one Latin American diplomat. “The oligarchy is that much more reactionary. and the choices are far fewer. “ ‘Zero’: The Guatemalan oligarchs hated Jimmy Carter for cutting off U.S. military aid in 1977 to protest humanrights abusesand the rightwingers hired marimba bands and set off firecrackers on the night Ronald Reagan was elected. They considered Reagan an ideological kinsman and believed they had a special
Simplification by cooperating decision procedures
 ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems
, 1979
"... A method for combining decision procedures for several theories into a single decision procedure for their combination is described, and a simplifier based on this method is discussed. The simplifier finds a normal form for any expression formed from individual variables, the usual Boolean connectiv ..."
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Cited by 456 (1 self)
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A method for combining decision procedures for several theories into a single decision procedure for their combination is described, and a simplifier based on this method is discussed. The simplifier finds a normal form for any expression formed from individual variables, the usual Boolean connectives, the equality predicate =, the conditional function ifthenelse, the integers, the arithmetic functions and predicates +,, and _<, the Lisp functions and predicates car, cdr, cons, and atom, the functions store and select for storing into and selecting from arrays, and uninterpreted function symbols. If the expression is a theorem it is simplified to the constant true, so the simplifier can be used as a decision procedure for the quantifierfree theory containing these functions and predicates. The simplifier is currently used in the Stanford Pascal Verifier.
Analogical Mapping by Constraint Satisfaction
 COGNITIVE SCIENCE 13, 295 (1989)
, 1989
"... A theory of analogical mopping between source and target analogs based upon interacting structural, semantic, and pragmatic constraints is proposed here. The structural constraint of fsomorphfsm encourages mappings that maximize the consistency of relational corresondences between the elements of th ..."
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Cited by 389 (28 self)
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A theory of analogical mopping between source and target analogs based upon interacting structural, semantic, and pragmatic constraints is proposed here. The structural constraint of fsomorphfsm encourages mappings that maximize the consistency of relational corresondences between the elements of the two analogs. The constraint of semantic similarity supports mapping hypotheses to the degree that mapped predicates have similar meanings. The constraint of pragmatic centrality fovors mappings involving elements the analogist believes to be important in order to achieve the purpose for which the anology Is being used. The theory is implemented in a computer progrom called ACME (Analogical Constraint Mapping Engine), which represents constraints by means of a network of supporting and competing hypotheses regarding what elements to map. A coop erative algorithm for parallel constraint satisfaction identifies mapping hypotheses that collectively represent the overall mapping that best fits the interactlng constraints. ACME has been applied to a wide range of examples that include problem analogies, analogical arguments, explanatory analogies, story analogies, formal analogies, and metaphors. ACME is sensitive to semantic and prag matic information if it is available,.and yet able to compute mappings between formally isomorphic analogs without any similar or identical elements. The theory Is able to account for empirical findings regarding the impact of consistenty and similarity on human processing of analogies.
An Overview of JML Tools and Applications
, 2003
"... The Java Modeling Language (JML) can be used to specify the detailed design of Java classes and interfaces by adding annotations to Java source files. The aim of JML is to provide a specification language that is easy to use for Java programmers and that is supported by a wide range of tools for ..."
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Cited by 369 (55 self)
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The Java Modeling Language (JML) can be used to specify the detailed design of Java classes and interfaces by adding annotations to Java source files. The aim of JML is to provide a specification language that is easy to use for Java programmers and that is supported by a wide range of tools for specification typechecking, runtime debugging, static analysis, and verification. This paper
The Variable Discharge of Cortical Neurons: Implications for Connectivity, Computation, and Information Coding
 J. Neurosci
, 1998
"... this paper we propose that the irregular ISI arises as a consequence of a specific problem that cortical neurons must solve: the problem of dynamic range or gain control. Cortical neurons receive 300010,000 synaptic contacts, 85% of which are asymmetric and hence presumably excitatory (Peters, 198 ..."
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Cited by 341 (3 self)
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this paper we propose that the irregular ISI arises as a consequence of a specific problem that cortical neurons must solve: the problem of dynamic range or gain control. Cortical neurons receive 300010,000 synaptic contacts, 85% of which are asymmetric and hence presumably excitatory (Peters, 1987; Braitenberg and Schuz, 1991). More than half of these contacts are thought to arise from neurons within a 100200 #m radius of the target cell, reflecting the stereotypical columnar organization of neocortex. Because neurons within a cortical column typically share similar physiological properties, the conditions that excite one neuron are likely to excite a considerable fraction of its afferent input as well (Mountcastle, 1978; Peters and Sethares, 1991), creating a scenario in which saturation of the neuron's firing rate could easily occur. This problem is exacerbated by the fact that EPSPs from individual axons appear to exert substantial impact on the membrane potential (Mason et al., 1991; Otmakhov Received Sept. 15, 1997; revised Feb. 25, 1998; accepted March 3, 1998.
Balanced Allocations
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 1994
"... Suppose that we sequentially place n balls into n boxes by putting each ball into a randomly chosen box. It is well known that when we are done, the fullest box has with high probability (1 + o(1)) ln n/ ln ln n balls in it. Suppose instead that for each ball we choose two boxes at random and place ..."
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Cited by 331 (8 self)
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Suppose that we sequentially place n balls into n boxes by putting each ball into a randomly chosen box. It is well known that when we are done, the fullest box has with high probability (1 + o(1)) ln n/ ln ln n balls in it. Suppose instead that for each ball we choose two boxes at random and place the ball into the one which is less full at the time of placement. We show that with high probability, the fullest box contains only ln ln n/ ln 2 +O(1) balls  exponentially less than before. Furthermore, we show that a similar gap exists in the infinite process, where at each step one ball, chosen uniformly at random, is deleted, and one ball is added in the manner above. We discuss consequences of this and related theorems for dynamic resource allocation, hashing, and online load balancing.
Results 1  10
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10,529