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13,563
Image denoising using a scale mixture of Gaussians in the wavelet domain
 IEEE TRANS IMAGE PROCESSING
, 2003
"... We describe a method for removing noise from digital images, based on a statistical model of the coefficients of an overcomplete multiscale oriented basis. Neighborhoods of coefficients at adjacent positions and scales are modeled as the product of two independent random variables: a Gaussian vecto ..."
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Cited by 514 (17 self)
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We describe a method for removing noise from digital images, based on a statistical model of the coefficients of an overcomplete multiscale oriented basis. Neighborhoods of coefficients at adjacent positions and scales are modeled as the product of two independent random variables: a Gaussian vector and a hidden positive scalar multiplier. The latter modulates the local variance of the coefficients in the neighborhood, and is thus able to account for the empirically observed correlation between the coefficient amplitudes. Under this model, the Bayesian least squares estimate of each coefficient reduces to a weighted average of the local linear estimates over all possible values of the hidden multiplier variable. We demonstrate through simulations with images contaminated by additive white Gaussian noise that the performance of this method substantially surpasses that of previously published methods, both visually and in terms of mean squared error.
An iterative thresholding algorithm for linear inverse problems with a sparsity constraint
, 2008
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Dynamic Tuning of the IEEE 802.11 Protocol to Achieve a Theoretical Throughput Limit
 IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING
, 2000
"... In wireless LANs (WLANs), the medium access control (MAC) protocol is the main element that determines the efficiency in sharing the limited communication bandwidth of the wireless channel. In this paper we focus on the efficiency of the IEEE 802.11 standard for WLANs. Specifically, we analytically ..."
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Cited by 434 (12 self)
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In wireless LANs (WLANs), the medium access control (MAC) protocol is the main element that determines the efficiency in sharing the limited communication bandwidth of the wireless channel. In this paper we focus on the efficiency of the IEEE 802.11 standard for WLANs. Specifically, we analytically derive the average size of the contention window that maximizes the throughput, hereafter theoretical throughput limit, and we show that: 1) depending on the network configuration, the standard can operate very far from the theoretical throughput limit; and 2) an appropriate tuning of the backoff algorithm can drive the IEEE 802.11 protocol close to the theoretical throughput limit. Hence we propose a distributed algorithm that enables each station to tune its backoff algorithm at runtime. The performances of the IEEE 802.11 protocol, enhanced with our algorithm, are extensively investigated by simulation. Specifically, we investigate the sensitiveness of our algorithm to some network configuration parameters (number of active stations, presence of hidden terminals). Our results indicate that the capacity of the enhanced protocol is very close to the theoretical upper bound in all the configurations analyzed.
A New VoronoiBased Surface Reconstruction Algorithm
, 2002
"... We describe our experience with a new algorithm for the reconstruction of surfaces from unorganized sample points in R³. The algorithm is the first for this problem with provable guarantees. Given a “good sample” from a smooth surface, the output is guaranteed to be topologically correct and converg ..."
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Cited by 422 (9 self)
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We describe our experience with a new algorithm for the reconstruction of surfaces from unorganized sample points in R³. The algorithm is the first for this problem with provable guarantees. Given a “good sample” from a smooth surface, the output is guaranteed to be topologically correct and convergent to the original surface as the sampling density increases. The definition of a good sample is itself interesting: the required sampling density varies locally, rigorously capturing the intuitive notion that featureless areas can be reconstructed from fewer samples. The output mesh interpolates, rather than approximates, the input points. Our algorithm is based on the threedimensional Voronoi diagram. Given a good program for this fundamental subroutine, the algorithm is quite easy to implement.
Surface Reconstruction by Voronoi Filtering
 Discrete and Computational Geometry
, 1998
"... We give a simple combinatorial algorithm that computes a piecewiselinear approximation of a smooth surface from a finite set of sample points. The algorithm uses Voronoi vertices to remove triangles from the Delaunay triangulation. We prove the algorithm correct by showing that for densely sampled ..."
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Cited by 418 (15 self)
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We give a simple combinatorial algorithm that computes a piecewiselinear approximation of a smooth surface from a finite set of sample points. The algorithm uses Voronoi vertices to remove triangles from the Delaunay triangulation. We prove the algorithm correct by showing that for densely sampled surfaces, where density depends on "local feature size", the output is topologically valid and convergent (both pointwise and in surface normals) to the original surface. We describe an implementation of the algorithm and show example outputs. 1 Introduction The problem of reconstructing a surface from scattered sample points arises in many applications such as computer graphics, medical imaging, and cartography. In this paper we consider the specific reconstruction problem in which the input is a set of sample points S drawn from a smooth twodimensional manifold F embedded in three dimensions, and the desired output is a triangular mesh with vertex set equal to S that faithfully represen...
An EM Algorithm for WaveletBased Image Restoration
, 2002
"... This paper introduces an expectationmaximization (EM) algorithm for image restoration (deconvolution) based on a penalized likelihood formulated in the wavelet domain. Regularization is achieved by promoting a reconstruction with lowcomplexity, expressed in terms of the wavelet coecients, taking a ..."
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Cited by 351 (23 self)
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This paper introduces an expectationmaximization (EM) algorithm for image restoration (deconvolution) based on a penalized likelihood formulated in the wavelet domain. Regularization is achieved by promoting a reconstruction with lowcomplexity, expressed in terms of the wavelet coecients, taking advantage of the well known sparsity of wavelet representations. Previous works have investigated waveletbased restoration but, except for certain special cases, the resulting criteria are solved approximately or require very demanding optimization methods. The EM algorithm herein proposed combines the efficient image representation oered by the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) with the diagonalization of the convolution operator obtained in the Fourier domain. The algorithm alternates between an Estep based on the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and a DWTbased Mstep, resulting in an ecient iterative process requiring O(N log N) operations per iteration. Thus, it is the rst image restoration algorithm that optimizes a waveletbased penalized likelihood criterion and has computational complexity comparable to that of standard wavelet denoising or frequency domain deconvolution methods. The convergence behavior of the algorithm is investigated, and it is shown that under mild conditions the algorithm converges to a globally optimal restoration. Moreover, our new approach outperforms several of the best existing methods in benchmark tests, and in some cases is also much less computationally demanding.
Jianguo Cao and Frederico Xavier
"... Let M 2n be a compact Riemannian manifold of nonpositive sectional curvature. It is shown that if M 2n is homeomorphic to a Kahler manifold, then its Euler number satisfies the inequality (\Gamma1) n Ø(M 2n ) 0. Introduction The results of this paper are related to a wellknown problem, a ..."
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Let M 2n be a compact Riemannian manifold of nonpositive sectional curvature. It is shown that if M 2n is homeomorphic to a Kahler manifold, then its Euler number satisfies the inequality (\Gamma1) n Ø(M 2n ) 0. Introduction The results of this paper are related to a wellknown problem, attributed sometimes to Hopf and sometimes to Chern, to the effect that the Euler number Ø(M 2n ) of a compact Riemannian manifold M 2n of negative sectional curvature must satisfy the inequality (\Gamma1) n Ø(M 2n ) ? 0. This conjecture is true in dimensions 2 and 4 [Ch] and it has been verified in the Kahler case for all n by Gromov [G] and Stern [S] (the work in [S] also uses results of Greene and Wu; see [GW], p.183215). Gromov's arguments are rather general and establish the following result: "Let M 2n be a compact Riemannian manifold of negative curvature. If M 2n is homotopy equivalent to a compact Kahler manifold then (\Gamma1) n Ø(M 2n ) ? 0"; see [G], Theorem 0.4.A...
Realized Variance and Market Microstructure Noise
, 2005
"... We study market microstructure noise in highfrequency data and analyze its implications for the realized variance (RV) under a general specification for the noise. We show that kernelbased estimators can unearth important characteristics of market microstructure noise and that a simple kernelbas ..."
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Cited by 264 (14 self)
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We study market microstructure noise in highfrequency data and analyze its implications for the realized variance (RV) under a general specification for the noise. We show that kernelbased estimators can unearth important characteristics of market microstructure noise and that a simple kernelbased estimator dominates the RV for the estimation of integrated variance (IV). An empirical analysis of the Dow Jones Industrial Average stocks reveals that market microstructure noise is timedependent and correlated with increments in the efficient price. This has important implications for volatility estimation based on highfrequency data. Finally, we apply cointegration techniques to decompose transaction prices and bid–ask quotes into an estimate of the efficient price and noise. This framework enables us to study the dynamic effects on transaction prices and quotes caused by changes in the efficient price.
Extraction of HighResolution Frames from Video Sequences
 IEEE Transactions on Image Processing
, 1996
"... The human visual system appears to be capable of temporally integrating information in a video sequence in such a way that the perceived spatial resolution of a sequence appears much higher than the spatial resolution of an individual frame. While the mechanisms in the human visual system which do t ..."
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Cited by 261 (8 self)
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The human visual system appears to be capable of temporally integrating information in a video sequence in such a way that the perceived spatial resolution of a sequence appears much higher than the spatial resolution of an individual frame. While the mechanisms in the human visual system which do this are unknown, the effect is not too surprising given that temporally adjacent frames in a video sequence contain slightly different, but unique, information. This paper addresses how to utilize both the spatial and temporal information present in a short image sequence to create a single highresolution video frame. A novel observation model based on motion compensated subsampling is proposed for a video sequence. Since the reconstruction problem is illposed, Bayesian restoration with a discontinuitypreserving prior image model is used to extract a highresolution video still given a short lowresolution sequence. Estimates computed from a lowresolution image sequence containing a subp...
Results 1  10
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13,563