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A Framework for Defining Logics
 JOURNAL OF THE ASSOCIATION FOR COMPUTING MACHINERY
, 1993
"... The Edinburgh Logical Framework (LF) provides a means to define (or present) logics. It is based on a general treatment of syntax, rules, and proofs by means of a typed calculus with dependent types. Syntax is treated in a style similar to, but more general than, MartinLof's system of ariti ..."
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Cited by 807 (45 self)
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The Edinburgh Logical Framework (LF) provides a means to define (or present) logics. It is based on a general treatment of syntax, rules, and proofs by means of a typed calculus with dependent types. Syntax is treated in a style similar to, but more general than, MartinLof's system
Constraint Logic Programming: A Survey
"... Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a merger of two declarative paradigms: constraint solving and logic programming. Although a relatively new field, CLP has progressed in several quite different directions. In particular, the early fundamental concepts have been adapted to better serve in differe ..."
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Cited by 864 (25 self)
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Constraint Logic Programming (CLP) is a merger of two declarative paradigms: constraint solving and logic programming. Although a relatively new field, CLP has progressed in several quite different directions. In particular, the early fundamental concepts have been adapted to better serve
Classical negation in logic programs and disjunctive databases
 New Generation Computing
, 1991
"... An important limitation of traditional logic programming as a knowledge representation tool, in comparison with classical logic, is that logic programming does not allow us to deal directly with incomplete information. In order to overcome this limitation, we extend the class of general logic progra ..."
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Cited by 1050 (76 self)
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An important limitation of traditional logic programming as a knowledge representation tool, in comparison with classical logic, is that logic programming does not allow us to deal directly with incomplete information. In order to overcome this limitation, we extend the class of general logic
Hyperintensions
"... Standard possible worlds semantics has been known from the start to have a problem with granularity: for a wide range of naturallanguage (NL) entailment patterns, not enough meaning distinctions are available to make predictions consistent with robust intuitions. Though numerous solutions have been ..."
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Cited by 6 (4 self)
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approach is proposed which may be simple enough and conservative enough to be practical for working empirical and computational semanticists. More specifically, I show how the use of a higherorder logic with definable subtypes leads to a novel and surprisingly straightforward solution of the granularity
Extensional versus intuitive reasoning: The conjunction fallacy in probability judgment
 Psychological Review
, 1983
"... Perhaps the simplest and the most basic qualitative law of probability is the conjunction rule: The probability of a conjunction, P(A&B), cannot exceed the probabilities of its constituents, P(A) and.P(B), because the extension (or the possibility set) of the conjunction is included in the exten ..."
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Cited by 427 (4 self)
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Perhaps the simplest and the most basic qualitative law of probability is the conjunction rule: The probability of a conjunction, P(A&B), cannot exceed the probabilities of its constituents, P(A) and.P(B), because the extension (or the possibility set) of the conjunction is included in the extension of its constituents. Judgments under uncertainty, however, are often mediated by intuitive heuristics that are not bound by the conjunction rule. A conjunction can be more representative than one of its constituents, and instances of a specific category can be easier to imagine or to retrieve than instances of a more inclusive category. The representativeness and availability heuristics therefore can make a conjunction appear more probable than one of its constituents. This phenomenon is demonstrated in a variety of contexts including estimation of word frequency, personality judgment, medical prognosis, decision under risk, suspicion of criminal acts, and political forecasting. Systematic violations of the conjunction rule are observed in judgments of lay people and of experts in both betweensubjects and withinsubjects comparisons. Alternative interpretations of the conjunction fallacy are discussed and attempts to combat it are explored. Uncertainty is an unavoidable aspect of the the last decade (see, e.g., Einhorn & Hogarth, human condition. Many significant choices must be based on beliefs about the likelihood
Perspectives on Program Analysis
, 1996
"... eing analysed. On the negative side, the semantic correctness of the analysis is seldom established and therefore there is often no formal justification for the program transformations for which the information is used. The semantics based approach [1; 5] is often based on domain theory in the form ..."
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Cited by 678 (35 self)
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in the form of abstract domains modelling sets of values, projections, or partial equivalence relations. The approach tends to focus more directly on discovering the extensional properties of interest: for constant propagation it might operate on sets of values with constancy corresponding to singletons
PVS: A Prototype Verification System
 CADE
, 1992
"... PVS is a prototype system for writing specifications and constructing proofs. Its development has been shaped by our experiences studying or using several other systems and performing a number of rather substantial formal verifications (e.g., [5,6,8]). PVS is fully implemented and freely available. ..."
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Cited by 654 (16 self)
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automation for an impoverished logic, and others that feature expressive logics but only limited automation. PVS attempts to tread the middle ground between these two classes by providing mechanical assistance to support clear and abstract specifications, and readable yet sound proofs for difficult theorems
Applications Of Circumscription To Formalizing Common Sense Knowledge
 Artificial Intelligence
, 1986
"... We present a new and more symmetric version of the circumscription method of nonmonotonic reasoning first described in (McCarthy 1980) and some applications to formalizing common sense knowledge. The applications in this paper are mostly based on minimizing the abnormality of different aspects o ..."
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Cited by 536 (12 self)
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. The present paper is logically selfcontained, but motivation may be enhanced by reading t...
Toward a model of text comprehension and production
 Psychological Review
, 1978
"... The semantic structure of texts can be described both at the local microlevel and at a more global macrolevel. A model for text comprehension based on this notion accounts for the formation of a coherent semantic text base in terms of a cyclical process constrained by limitations of working memory. ..."
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Cited by 540 (12 self)
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to a paragraph from a psychological research report, and methods for the empirical testing of the model are developed. The main goal of this article is to describe the system of mental operations that underlie the processes occurring in text comprehension and in the production of recall
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