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311,360
Bayesian Network Classifiers
, 1997
"... Recent work in supervised learning has shown that a surprisingly simple Bayesian classifier with strong assumptions of independence among features, called naive Bayes, is competitive with stateoftheart classifiers such as C4.5. This fact raises the question of whether a classifier with less restr ..."
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Cited by 788 (23 self)
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represent statements about independence. Among these approaches we single out a method we call Tree Augmented Naive Bayes (TAN), which outperforms naive Bayes, yet at the same time maintains the computational simplicity (no search involved) and robustness that characterize naive Bayes. We experimentally
The separation of ownership and control in East Asian Corporations
 Journal of Financial Economics
, 2000
"... We examine the separation of ownership and control for 2,980 corporations in nine East Asian countries. In all countries, voting rights frequently exceed cash#ow rights via pyramid structures and crossholdings. The separation of ownership and control is most pronounced among familycontrolled &quo ..."
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Cited by 573 (17 self)
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controlled "rms and small "rms. More than twothirds of "rms are controlled by a single shareholder. Managers of closely held "rms tend to be relatives of the controlling shareholder's family. Older "rms are generally familycontrolled, dispelling the notion that ownership becomes
Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher
, 1986
"... "He who can, does. He who cannot, teaches. “ 1 don't know in what fit of pique George Bernard Shaw wrote that infamous aphorism, words that have plagued members of the teaching profession for nearly a century. They are found in "Maxims for Revolutionists, " an appendix to his pl ..."
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Cited by 1272 (1 self)
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such a demeaning image of the teacher's capacities originate? How long have we been burdened by assumptions of ignorance and ineptitude within the teaching corps? Is Shaw to be treated as the last word on what teachers know and don't know, or do and can't do? Yesterday's
Bagging Predictors
 Machine Learning
, 1996
"... Bagging predictors is a method for generating multiple versions of a predictor and using these to get an aggregated predictor. The aggregation averages over the versions when predicting a numerical outcome and does a plurality vote when predicting a class. The multiple versions are formed by making ..."
Abstract

Cited by 3574 (1 self)
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of the prediction method. If perturbing the learning set can cause significant changes in the predictor constructed, then bagging can improve accuracy. 1. Introduction A learning set of L consists of data f(y n ; x n ), n = 1; : : : ; Ng where the y's are either class labels or a numerical response. We have a
A MetaAnalytic Review of Experiments Examining the Effects of Extrinsic Rewards on Intrinsic Motivation
"... A metaanalysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagementcontingent, completioncontingent, and performancecontingent rewards significantly undermined freechoice intrinsic motivation (d =0.40,0.36, and0.28, respectively), as did ..."
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Cited by 602 (16 self)
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this study's methods, analyses, and results differed from the previous ones. By 1971, hundreds of studies within the operant tradition (Skinner, 1953) had established that extrinsic rewards can control behavior. When administered closely subsequent to a behavior, rewards were reliably found
The process group approach to reliable distributed computing
 Communications of the ACM
, 1993
"... The difficulty of developing reliable distributed softwme is an impediment to applying distributed computing technology in many settings. Expeti _ with the Isis system suggests that a structured approach based on virtually synchronous _ groups yields systems that are substantially easier to develop, ..."
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Cited by 573 (19 self)
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. The thesis underlying l._lS is that development of reliable distributed software can be simplified using process groups and group programming too/_. This paper motivates the approach taken, surveys the system, and discusses our experience with real applications.
Action recognition in the premotor cortex
 Brain
, 1996
"... We recorded electrical activity from 532 neurons in the rostral part of inferior area 6 (area F5) of two macaque monkeys. Previous data had shown that neurons of this area discharge during goaldirected hand and mouth movements. We describe here the properties of a newly discovered set of F5 neurons ..."
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Cited by 631 (46 self)
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Brocca 's region, we posit that a matching system, similar to that of mirror neurons exists in humans and could be involved in recognition of actions as well as phonetic gestures.
Fronts propagating with curvature dependent speed: algorithms based on Hamilton–Jacobi formulations
 Journal of Computational Physics
, 1988
"... We devise new numerical algorithms, called PSC algorithms, for following fronts propagating with curvaturedependent speed. The speed may be an arbitrary function of curvature, and the front can also be passively advected by an underlying flow. These algorithms approximate the equations of motion, w ..."
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Cited by 1183 (64 self)
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We devise new numerical algorithms, called PSC algorithms, for following fronts propagating with curvaturedependent speed. The speed may be an arbitrary function of curvature, and the front can also be passively advected by an underlying flow. These algorithms approximate the equations of motion, which resemble HamiltonJacobi equations with parabolic righthandsides, by using techniques from the hyperbolic conservation laws. Nonoscillatory schemes of various orders of accuracy are used to solve the equations, providing methods that accurately capture the formation of sharp gradients and cusps in the moving fronts. The algorithms handle topological merging and breaking naturally, work in any number of space dimensions, and do not require that the moving surface be written as a function. The methods can be also used for more general HamiltonJacobitype problems. We demonstrate our algorithms by computing the solution to a variety of surface motion problems. 1
A theory of communicating sequential processes
, 1984
"... A mathematical model for communicating sequential processes is given, and a number of its interesting and useful properties are stated and proved. The possibilities of nondetermimsm are fully taken into account. ..."
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Cited by 4135 (17 self)
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A mathematical model for communicating sequential processes is given, and a number of its interesting and useful properties are stated and proved. The possibilities of nondetermimsm are fully taken into account.
Very simple classification rules perform well on most commonly used datasets
 Machine Learning
, 1993
"... The classification rules induced by machine learning systems are judged by two criteria: their classification accuracy on an independent test set (henceforth "accuracy"), and their complexity. The relationship between these two criteria is, of course, of keen interest to the machin ..."
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Cited by 542 (5 self)
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The classification rules induced by machine learning systems are judged by two criteria: their classification accuracy on an independent test set (henceforth "accuracy"), and their complexity. The relationship between these two criteria is, of course, of keen interest to the machine learning community. There are in the literature some indications that very simple rules may achieve surprisingly high accuracy on many datasets. For example, Rendell occasionally remarks that many real world datasets have "few peaks (often just one) " and so are "easy to learn" (Rendell & Seshu, 1990, p.256). Similarly, Shavlik et al. (1991) report that, with certain qualifications, "the accuracy of the perceptron is hardly distinguishable from the more complicated learning algorithms " (p.134). Further evidence is provided by studies of pruning methods (e.g. Buntine & Niblett, 1992; Clark & Niblett, 1989; Mingers, 1989), where accuracy is rarely seen to decrease as pruning becomes more severe (for example, see Table 1) 1. This is so even when rules are pruned to the extreme, as happened with the "Errcomp " pruning method in Mingers (1989). This method produced the most accurate decision trees, and in four of the five domains studied these trees had only 2 or 3 leaves
Results 1  10
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311,360