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New Directions in Cryptography
, 1976
"... Two kinds of contemporary developments in cryptography are examined. Widening applications of teleprocessing have given rise to a need for new types of cryptographic systems, which minimize the need for secure key distribution channels and supply the equivalent of a written signature. This paper sug ..."
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Cited by 3499 (7 self)
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Two kinds of contemporary developments in cryptography are examined. Widening applications of teleprocessing have given rise to a need for new types of cryptographic systems, which minimize the need for secure key distribution channels and supply the equivalent of a written signature. This paper
NonMalleable Cryptography
 SIAM Journal on Computing
, 2000
"... The notion of nonmalleable cryptography, an extension of semantically secure cryptography, is defined. Informally, in the context of encryption the additional requirement is that given the ciphertext it is impossible to generate a different ciphertext so that the respective plaintexts are related. ..."
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Cited by 490 (21 self)
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The notion of nonmalleable cryptography, an extension of semantically secure cryptography, is defined. Informally, in the context of encryption the additional requirement is that given the ciphertext it is impossible to generate a different ciphertext so that the respective plaintexts are related
The knowledge complexity of interactive proof systems
 in Proc. 27th Annual Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science
, 1985
"... Abstract. Usually, a proof of a theorem contains more knowledge than the mere fact that the theorem is true. For instance, to prove that a graph is Hamiltonian it suffices to exhibit a Hamiltonian tour in it; however, this seems to contain more knowledge than the single bit Hamiltonian/nonHamiltoni ..."
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Cited by 1267 (42 self)
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Abstract. Usually, a proof of a theorem contains more knowledge than the mere fact that the theorem is true. For instance, to prove that a graph is Hamiltonian it suffices to exhibit a Hamiltonian tour in it; however, this seems to contain more knowledge than the single bit Hamiltonian
A public key cryptosystem and a signature scheme based on discrete logarithms
 Adv. in Cryptology, SpringerVerlag
, 1985
"... AbstractA new signature scheme is proposed, together with an implementation of the DiffieHellman key distribution scheme that achieves a public key cryptosystem. The security of both systems relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms over finite fields. I. ..."
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Cited by 1520 (0 self)
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AbstractA new signature scheme is proposed, together with an implementation of the DiffieHellman key distribution scheme that achieves a public key cryptosystem. The security of both systems relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms over finite fields. I.
Reconciling Two Views of Cryptography (The Computational Soundness of Formal Encryption)
, 2000
"... Two distinct, rigorous views of cryptography have developed over the years, in two mostly separate communities. One of the views relies on a simple but effective formal approach; the other, on a detailed computational model that considers issues of complexity and probability. ..."
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Cited by 389 (18 self)
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Two distinct, rigorous views of cryptography have developed over the years, in two mostly separate communities. One of the views relies on a simple but effective formal approach; the other, on a detailed computational model that considers issues of complexity and probability.
A calculus for cryptographic protocols: The spi calculus
 Information and Computation
, 1999
"... We introduce the spi calculus, an extension of the pi calculus designed for the description and analysis of cryptographic protocols. We show how to use the spi calculus, particularly for studying authentication protocols. The pi calculus (without extension) suffices for some abstract protocols; the ..."
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Cited by 919 (55 self)
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We introduce the spi calculus, an extension of the pi calculus designed for the description and analysis of cryptographic protocols. We show how to use the spi calculus, particularly for studying authentication protocols. The pi calculus (without extension) suffices for some abstract protocols
On Lattices, Learning with Errors, Random Linear Codes, and Cryptography
 In STOC
, 2005
"... Our main result is a reduction from worstcase lattice problems such as SVP and SIVP to a certain learning problem. This learning problem is a natural extension of the ‘learning from parity with error’ problem to higher moduli. It can also be viewed as the problem of decoding from a random linear co ..."
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Cited by 366 (6 self)
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Our main result is a reduction from worstcase lattice problems such as SVP and SIVP to a certain learning problem. This learning problem is a natural extension of the ‘learning from parity with error’ problem to higher moduli. It can also be viewed as the problem of decoding from a random linear code. This, we believe, gives a strong indication that these problems are hard. Our reduction, however, is quantum. Hence, an efficient solution to the learning problem implies a quantum algorithm for SVP and SIVP. A main open question is whether this reduction can be made classical. We also present a (classical) publickey cryptosystem whose security is based on the hardness of the learning problem. By the main result, its security is also based on the worstcase quantum hardness of SVP and SIVP. Previous latticebased publickey cryptosystems such as the one by Ajtai and Dwork were based only on uniqueSVP, a special case of SVP. The new cryptosystem is much more efficient than previous cryptosystems: the public key is of size Õ(n2) and encrypting a message increases its size by a factor of Õ(n) (in previous cryptosystems these values are Õ(n4) and Õ(n2), respectively). In fact, under the assumption that all parties share a random bit string of length Õ(n2), the size of the public key can be reduced to Õ(n). 1
A Security Architecture for Computational Grids
, 1998
"... Stateoftheart and emerging scientific applications require fast access to large quantities of data and commensurately fast computational resources. Both resources and data are often distributed in a widearea network with components administered locally and independently. Computations may involve ..."
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Cited by 569 (49 self)
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Stateoftheart and emerging scientific applications require fast access to large quantities of data and commensurately fast computational resources. Both resources and data are often distributed in a widearea network with components administered locally and independently. Computations may involve hundreds of processes that must be able to acquire resources dynamically and communicate e#ciently. This paper analyzes the unique security requirements of largescale distributed (grid) computing and develops a security policy and a corresponding security architecture. An implementation of the architecture within the Globus metacomputing toolkit is discussed.
The Sybil Attack
, 2002
"... Largescale peertopeer systems face security threats from faulty or hostile remote computing elements. To resist these threats, many such systems employ redundancy. However, if a single faulty entity can present multiple identities, it can control a substantial fraction of the system, thereby unde ..."
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Cited by 1518 (1 self)
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Largescale peertopeer systems face security threats from faulty or hostile remote computing elements. To resist these threats, many such systems employ redundancy. However, if a single faulty entity can present multiple identities, it can control a substantial fraction of the system, thereby undermining this redundancy. One approach to preventing these "Sybil attacks" is to have a trusted agency certify identities. This paper shows that, without a logically centralized authority, Sybil attacks are always possible except under extreme and unrealistic assumptions of resource parity and coordination among entities.
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