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Estimating Wealth Effects without Expenditure Data— or Tears
 Policy Research Working Paper 1980, The World
, 1998
"... Abstract: We use the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data collected in Indian states in 1992 and 1993 to estimate the relationship between household wealth and the probability a child (aged 6 to 14) is enrolled in school. A methodological difficulty to overcome is that the NFHS, modeled closely ..."
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Cited by 832 (16 self)
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Abstract: We use the National Family Health Survey (NFHS) data collected in Indian states in 1992 and 1993 to estimate the relationship between household wealth and the probability a child (aged 6 to 14) is enrolled in school. A methodological difficulty to overcome is that the NFHS, modeled closely on the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), measures neither household income nor consumption expenditures. As a proxy for longrun household wealth we construct a linear index from a set of asset indicators using principal components analysis to derive the weights. This “asset index ” is robust, produces internally coherent results, and provides a close correspondence with State Domestic Product (SDP) and poverty rates data. We validate the asset index using data from Indonesia, Pakistan and Nepal which contain data on both consumption expenditures and asset ownership. The asset index has reasonable coherence with current consumption expenditures and most importantly, works as well, or better, than traditional expenditure based measures in predicting enrollment status. When the asset index is applied to the Indian data the results show large, and variable, wealth gaps in the enrollment of children across states of India. While on average across India a rich (top 20 percent of the asset index) child is 31 percentage points more likely to be enrolled than a poor child (bottom 40 percent), this wealth gap varies from only 4.6 in Kerala, to 38.2 in Uttar Pradesh and 42.6 percentage points in Bihar. The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this paper are entirely those of the authors. They do not necessarily represent the views of the World Bank, its Executive Directors, or the countries they represent. Estimating Wealth Effects without Expenditure Data or Tears: An Application to Educational Enrollments in States of India 1
, Malik Abdul Rub 1
"... adverse affects on the environment. Thus, a primary goal of green chemistry and technology is to reduce the environmental impact of chemical processes and chemical manufacturing while simultaneously enhancing the overall process performance. Although it is beneficial to simply reduce the use of orga ..."
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adverse affects on the environment. Thus, a primary goal of green chemistry and technology is to reduce the environmental impact of chemical processes and chemical manufacturing while simultaneously enhancing the overall process performance. Although it is beneficial to simply reduce the use of organic solvents in chemical processes, green chemistry and technology goes further, in that it evaluates the entire thing to identify techniques that can be applied to minimize the overall process hazard, while maintaining economic practicality. Evaluation of the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process requires a systematic approach and appropriate metrics that permit quantitative assessment of environmental hazards. Thus, this review begins with a introduction of cationexchange materials the drivers for green technology and the metrics through which processes can be started. Then, the cationexchange materials have so many applications described in this review and their many derivative and we describes inorganic to nanocomposite cation exchange materials and their technological improvement from old era to latest age of nano because green chemistry can be applied to real processes. Two elements are specifically highlighted: (a) the use of new materials to facilitate
Wireless Network Information Flow: A Deterministic Approach
, 2009
"... In contrast to wireline networks, not much is known about the flow of information over wireless networks. The main barrier is the complexity of the signal interaction in wireless channels in addition to the noise in the channel. A widely accepted model is the the additive Gaussian channel model, and ..."
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Cited by 298 (46 self)
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In contrast to wireline networks, not much is known about the flow of information over wireless networks. The main barrier is the complexity of the signal interaction in wireless channels in addition to the noise in the channel. A widely accepted model is the the additive Gaussian channel model, and for this model, the capacity of even a network with a single relay node is open for 30 years. In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to this problem by focusing on the signal interaction rather than the noise. To this end, we propose a deterministic channel model which is analytically simpler than the Gaussian model but still captures two key wireless channel properties of broadcast and superposition. We consider a model for a wireless relay network with nodes connected by such deterministic channels, and present an exact characterization of the endtoend capacity when there is a single source and one or more destinations (all interested in the same information) and an arbitrary number of relay nodes. This result is a natural generalization of the celebrated maxflow mincut theorem for wireline networks. We then use the insights obtained from the analysis of the deterministic model to study information flow for the Gaussian wireless relay network. We present an achievable rate for general Gaussian relay networks and show that it is within a constant number of bits from the cutset bound on the capacity of these networks. This constant depends on the number of nodes in the network, but not the values of the channel gains or the signaltonoise ratios. We show that existing strategies cannot achieve such a constantgap approximation for arbitrary networks and propose a new quantizemapandforward scheme that does. We also give several extensions of the approximation framework including robustness results (through compound channels), halfduplex constraints and ergodic channel variations.
Molecular biology and pathogenicity of mycoplasmas
, 1998
"... This article cites 454 articles, 231 of which can be accessed ..."
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Cited by 174 (9 self)
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This article cites 454 articles, 231 of which can be accessed
A dynamic survey of graph labellings
 Electron. J. Combin., Dynamic Surveys(6):95pp
, 2001
"... A graph labeling is an assignment of integers to the vertices or edges, or both, subject to certain conditions. Graph labelings were first introduced in the late 1960s. In the intervening years dozens of graph labelings techniques have been studied in over 1000 papers. Finding out what has been done ..."
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Cited by 167 (0 self)
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A graph labeling is an assignment of integers to the vertices or edges, or both, subject to certain conditions. Graph labelings were first introduced in the late 1960s. In the intervening years dozens of graph labelings techniques have been studied in over 1000 papers. Finding out what has been
Endotoxintolerant mice have mutations in Tolllike receptor 4
, 1999
"... Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provokes a vigorous, generalized proinflammatory state in the infected host. Genetic regulation of this response has been localized to the Lps locus on mouse chromosome 4, through study of the C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr inbred strains. Both C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr m ..."
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Cited by 169 (6 self)
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Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) provokes a vigorous, generalized proinflammatory state in the infected host. Genetic regulation of this response has been localized to the Lps locus on mouse chromosome 4, through study of the C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr inbred strains. Both C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice are homozygous for a mutant Lps allele (Lpsd/d) that confers hyporesponsiveness to LPS challenge, and therefore exhibit natural tolerance to its lethal effects. Genetic and physical mapping of 1,345 backcross progeny segregating this mutant phenotype confined Lps to a 0.9cM interval spanning 1.7 Mb. Three transcription units were identified within the candidate interval, including Tolllike receptor 4 (Tlr4), part of a protein family with members that have been implicated in LPSinduced cell signaling. C3H/HeJ mice have a point mutation within the coding region of the Tlr4 gene, resulting in a nonconservative substitution of a highly conserved proline by histidine at codon 712, whereas C57BL/ 10ScCr mice exhibit a deletion of Tlr4. Identification of distinct mutations involving the same gene at the Lps locus in two different hyporesponsive inbred mouse strains strongly supports the hypothesis that altered Tlr4 function is responsible for endotoxin tolerance. Key words: lipopolysaccharide • inflammation • positional cloning • Salmonella • mice/
Finding interesting associations without support pruning
 In ICDE
, 2000
"... Abstract Associationrule mining has heretofore relied on the condition of high support to do its work efficiently. In particular, the wellknown apriori algorithm is only effective when the only rules of interest are relationships that occur very frequently. However, there are a number of applicat ..."
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Cited by 168 (16 self)
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Abstract Associationrule mining has heretofore relied on the condition of high support to do its work efficiently. In particular, the wellknown apriori algorithm is only effective when the only rules of interest are relationships that occur very frequently. However, there are a number of applications, such as data mining, identification of similar web documents, clustering, and collaborative filtering, where the rules of interest have comparatively few instances in the data. In these cases, we must look for highly correlated items, or possibly even causal relationships between infrequent items. We develop a family of algorithms for solving this problem, employing a combination of random sampling and hashing techniques. We provide analysis of the algorithms developed, and conduct experiments on real and synthetic data to obtain a comparative performance analysis.
A polylogarithmic approximation algorithm for the group Steiner tree problem
 Journal of Algorithms
, 2000
"... The group Steiner tree problem is a generalization of the Steiner tree problem where we ae given several subsets (groups) of vertices in a weighted graph, and the goal is to find a minimumweight connected subgraph containing at least one vertex from each group. The problem was introduced by Reich a ..."
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Cited by 150 (9 self)
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The group Steiner tree problem is a generalization of the Steiner tree problem where we ae given several subsets (groups) of vertices in a weighted graph, and the goal is to find a minimumweight connected subgraph containing at least one vertex from each group. The problem was introduced by Reich and Widmayer and finds applications in VLSI design. The group Steiner tree problem generalizes the set covering problem, and is therefore at least as had. We give a randomized O(log 3 n log k)approximation algorithm for the group Steiner tree problem on an nnode graph, where k is the number of groups. The best previous ink)v/ (Bateman, Helvig, performance guarantee was (1 +  Robins and Zelikovsky).
2002, “The Targeting of Transfers in Developing Countries
 Review of Experience and Lessons,” Social Safety Net Primer Series, World
"... useful comments and for supplying us with reference materials,Yisgedu Amde and Sanjukta Mukherjee for helpful research assistance and Manorama Rani for document processing. The paper was commissioned by the Social Protection Anchor unit for the Safety Nets Primer series. The findings, interpretation ..."
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Cited by 138 (7 self)
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useful comments and for supplying us with reference materials,Yisgedu Amde and Sanjukta Mukherjee for helpful research assistance and Manorama Rani for document processing. The paper was commissioned by the Social Protection Anchor unit for the Safety Nets Primer series. The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed in this publication are those of the authors and should not be attributed in any manner to the World Bank, its affiliated organizations, or to the members of the Board of Directors or the countries they represent. Please convey comments to
A Deterministic Approach to Wireless Relay Networks
, 2007
"... We present a deterministic channel model which captures several key features of multiuser wireless communication. We consider a model for a wireless network with nodes connected by such deterministic channels, and present an exact characterization of the endtoend capacity when there is a single so ..."
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Cited by 137 (24 self)
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We present a deterministic channel model which captures several key features of multiuser wireless communication. We consider a model for a wireless network with nodes connected by such deterministic channels, and present an exact characterization of the endtoend capacity when there is a single source and a single destination and an arbitrary number of relay nodes. This result is a natural generalization of the maxflow mincut theorem for wireline networks. Finally to demonstrate the connections between deterministic model and Gaussian model, we look at two examples: the singlerelay channel and the diamond network. We show that in each of these two examples, the capacityachieving scheme in the corresponding deterministic model naturally suggests a scheme in the Gaussian model that is within 1 bit and 2 bit respectively from cutset upper bound, for all values of the channel gains. This is the first part of a twopart paper; the sequel [1] will focus on the proof of the maxflow mincut theorem of a class of deterministic networks of which our model is a special case.
Results 1  10
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