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Image retrieval: Current techniques, promising directions and open issues
 Journal of Visual Communication and Image Representation
, 1999
"... This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the technical achievements in the research area of image retrieval, especially contentbased image retrieval, an area that has been so active and prosperous in the past few years. The survey includes 100+ papers covering the research aspects of image fea ..."
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Cited by 492 (14 self)
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This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the technical achievements in the research area of image retrieval, especially contentbased image retrieval, an area that has been so active and prosperous in the past few years. The survey includes 100+ papers covering the research aspects of image feature representation and extraction, multidimensional indexing, and system design, three of the fundamental bases of contentbased image retrieval. Furthermore, based on the stateoftheart technology available now and the demand from realworld applications, open research issues are identified and future promising research directions are suggested. C ○ 1999 Academic Press 1.
The Cougar Approach to InNetwork Query Processing in Sensor Networks
 SIGMOD Record
, 2002
"... The widespread distribution and availability of smallscale sensors, actuators, and embedded processors is transforming the physical world into a computing platform. One such example is a sensor network consisting of a large number of sensor nodes that combine physical sensing capabilities such as te ..."
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Cited by 491 (1 self)
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The widespread distribution and availability of smallscale sensors, actuators, and embedded processors is transforming the physical world into a computing platform. One such example is a sensor network consisting of a large number of sensor nodes that combine physical sensing capabilities such as temperature, light, or seismic sensors with networking and computation capabilities. Applications range from environmental control, warehouse inventory, and health care to military environments. Existing sensor networks assume that the sensors are preprogrammed and send data to a central frontend where the data is aggregated and stored for offline querying and analysis. This approach has two major drawbacks. First, the user cannot change the behavior of the system on the fly. Second, conservation of battery power is a major design factor, but a central system cannot make use of innetwork programming, which trades costly communication for cheap local computation.
Fusion, Propagation, and Structuring in Belief Networks
 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
, 1986
"... Belief networks are directed acyclic graphs in which the nodes represent propositions (or variables), the arcs signify direct dependencies between the linked propositions, and the strengths of these dependencies are quantified by conditional probabilities. A network of this sort can be used to repre ..."
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Cited by 482 (8 self)
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Belief networks are directed acyclic graphs in which the nodes represent propositions (or variables), the arcs signify direct dependencies between the linked propositions, and the strengths of these dependencies are quantified by conditional probabilities. A network of this sort can be used to represent the generic knowledge of a domain expert, and it turns into a computational architecture if the links are used not merely for storing factual knowledge but also for directing and activating the data flow in the computations which manipulate this knowledge. The first part of the paper deals with the task of fusing and propagating the impacts of new information through the networks in such a way that, when equilibrium is reached, each proposition will be assigned a measure of belief consistent with the axioms of probability theory. It is shown that if the network is singly connected (e.g. treestructured), then probabilities can be updated by local propagation in an isomorphic network of parallel and autonomous processors and that the impact of new information can be imparted to all propositions in time proportional to the longest path in the network. The second part of the paper deals with the problem of finding a treestructured representation for a collection of probabilistically coupled propositions using auxiliary (dummy) variables, colloquially called "hidden causes. " It is shown that if such a treestructured representation exists, then it is possible to uniquely uncover the topology of the tree by observing pairwise dependencies among the available propositions (i.e., the leaves of the tree). The entire tree structure, including the strengths of all internal relationships, can be reconstructed in time proportional to n log n, where n is the number of leaves.
Finite state Markovchain approximations to univariate and vector autoregressions
 Economics Letters
, 1986
"... The paper develops a procedure for finding a discretevalued Markov chain whose sample paths approximate well those of a vector autoregression. The procedure has applications in those areas of economics, finance, and econometrics where approximate solutions to integral equations are required. 1. ..."
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Cited by 472 (0 self)
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The paper develops a procedure for finding a discretevalued Markov chain whose sample paths approximate well those of a vector autoregression. The procedure has applications in those areas of economics, finance, and econometrics where approximate solutions to integral equations are required. 1.
On the Difference between Updating a Knowledge Base and Revising it
"... this paper, we argue that no such set of postulates will be adequate for every application. In particular, we make a fundamental distinction between two kinds of modifications to a knowledge base. The first one, update, consists of bringing the knowledge base up to date when the world described by i ..."
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Cited by 469 (9 self)
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this paper, we argue that no such set of postulates will be adequate for every application. In particular, we make a fundamental distinction between two kinds of modifications to a knowledge base. The first one, update, consists of bringing the knowledge base up to date when the world described by it changes. For example, most database updates are of this variety, e.g. "increase Joe's salary by 5%". Another example is the incorporation into the knowledge base of changes caused in the world by the actions of a robot (Ginsberg and Smith 1987, Winslett 1988, Winslett 1990) . We show that the AGM postulates must be drastically modified to describe update. The second type of modification, revision, is used when we are obtaining new information about a static world. For example, we may be trying to diagnose a faulty circuit and want to incorporate into the knowledge base the results of successive tests, where newer results may contradict old ones. We claim the AGM postulates describe only revision.
Testing for Common Trends
 Journal of the American Statistical Association
, 1988
"... Cointegrated multiple time series share at least one common trend. Two tests are developed for the number of common stochastic trends (i.e., for the order of cointegration) in a multiple time series with and without drift. Both tests involve the roots of the ordinary least squares coefficient matrix ..."
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Cited by 455 (7 self)
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Cointegrated multiple time series share at least one common trend. Two tests are developed for the number of common stochastic trends (i.e., for the order of cointegration) in a multiple time series with and without drift. Both tests involve the roots of the ordinary least squares coefficient matrix obtained by regressing the series onto its first lag. Critical values for the tests are tabulated, and their power is examined in a Monte Carlo study. Economic time series are often modeled as having a unit root in their autoregressive representation, or (equivalently) as containing a stochastic trend. But both casual observation and economic theory suggesthat many series might contain the same stochastic trendso that they are cointegrated. If each of n series is integrated of order 1 but can be jointly characterized by k < n stochastic trends, then the vecto representation of these series has k unit roots and n k distinct stationary linear combinations. Our proposed tests can be viewed alternatively as tests of the number of common trends, linearly independent cointegrating vectors, or autoregressive unit roots of the vector process. Both of the proposed tests are asymptotically similar. The firstest (qf) is developed under the assumption that certain components of the process have a finiteorder vector autoregressive (VAR) representation, and the nuisance parameters are handled by estimating this VAR. The second test (q,) entails computing the eigenvalues of a corrected sample firstorder autocorrelation matrix, where the correction is essentially a sum of the autocovariance matrices. Previous researchers have found that U.S. postwar interest rates, taken individually, appear to be integrated of order 1. In addition, the theory of the term structure implies that yields on similar assets of different maturities will be cointegrated. Applying these tests to postwar U.S. data on the federal funds rate and the three and twelvemonth treasury bill rates providesupport for this prediction: The three interest rates appear to be cointegrated.
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