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Cilk: An Efficient Multithreaded Runtime System
 JOURNAL OF PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED COMPUTING
, 1995
"... Cilk (pronounced "silk") is a Cbased runtime system for multithreaded parallel programming. In this paper, we document the efficiency of the Cilk workstealing scheduler, both empirically and analytically. We show that on real and synthetic applications, the "work" and "cri ..."
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Cited by 750 (40 self)
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Cilk (pronounced "silk") is a Cbased runtime system for multithreaded parallel programming. In this paper, we document the efficiency of the Cilk workstealing scheduler, both empirically and analytically. We show that on real and synthetic applications, the "work" and "
Executive Compensation
, 1999
"... This paper summarizes the empirical and theoretical research on executive compensation and provides a comprehensive and uptodate description of pay practices (and trends in pay practices) for chief executive officers (CEOs). Topics discussed include the level and structure of CEO pay (including de ..."
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Cited by 603 (19 self)
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This paper summarizes the empirical and theoretical research on executive compensation and provides a comprehensive and uptodate description of pay practices (and trends in pay practices) for chief executive officers (CEOs). Topics discussed include the level and structure of CEO pay (including
The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “Frontal Lobe” tasks: a latent variable analysis
 Cognit Psychol
, 2000
"... This individual differences study examined the separability of three often postulated executive functions—mental set shifting (‘‘Shifting’’), information updating and monitoring (‘‘Updating’’), and inhibition of prepotent responses (‘‘Inhibition’’)—and their roles in complex ‘‘frontal lobe’ ’ or ‘ ..."
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Cited by 626 (9 self)
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This individual differences study examined the separability of three often postulated executive functions—mental set shifting (‘‘Shifting’’), information updating and monitoring (‘‘Updating’’), and inhibition of prepotent responses (‘‘Inhibition’’)—and their roles in complex ‘‘frontal lobe
Automatic verification of finitestate concurrent systems using temporal logic specifications
 ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems
, 1986
"... We give an efficient procedure for verifying that a finitestate concurrent system meets a specification expressed in a (propositional, branchingtime) temporal logic. Our algorithm has complexity linear in both the size of the specification and the size of the global state graph for the concurrent ..."
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Cited by 1384 (62 self)
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We give an efficient procedure for verifying that a finitestate concurrent system meets a specification expressed in a (propositional, branchingtime) temporal logic. Our algorithm has complexity linear in both the size of the specification and the size of the global state graph for the concurrent system. We also show how this approach can be adapted to handle fairness. We argue that our technique can provide a practical alternative to manual proof construction or use of a mechanical theorem prover for verifying many finitestate concurrent systems. Experimental results show that state machines with several hundred states can be checked in a matter of seconds.
Bandera: Extracting Finitestate Models from Java Source Code
 IN PROCEEDINGS OF THE 22ND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
, 2000
"... Finitestate verification techniques, such as model checking, have shown promise as a costeffective means for finding defects in hardware designs. To date, the application of these techniques to software has been hindered by several obstacles. Chief among these is the problem of constructing a fini ..."
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Cited by 653 (35 self)
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finitestate model that approximates the executable behavior of the software system of interest. Current bestpractice involves handconstruction of models which is expensive (prohibitive for all but the smallest systems), prone to errors (which can result in misleading verification results
PVS: A Prototype Verification System
 CADE
, 1992
"... PVS is a prototype system for writing specifications and constructing proofs. Its development has been shaped by our experiences studying or using several other systems and performing a number of rather substantial formal verifications (e.g., [5,6,8]). PVS is fully implemented and freely available. ..."
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Cited by 654 (16 self)
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PVS is a prototype system for writing specifications and constructing proofs. Its development has been shaped by our experiences studying or using several other systems and performing a number of rather substantial formal verifications (e.g., [5,6,8]). PVS is fully implemented and freely available
Proof verification and hardness of approximation problems
 IN PROC. 33RD ANN. IEEE SYMP. ON FOUND. OF COMP. SCI
, 1992
"... We show that every language in NP has a probablistic verifier that checks membership proofs for it using logarithmic number of random bits and by examining a constant number of bits in the proof. If a string is in the language, then there exists a proof such that the verifier accepts with probabilit ..."
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Cited by 822 (39 self)
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We show that every language in NP has a probablistic verifier that checks membership proofs for it using logarithmic number of random bits and by examining a constant number of bits in the proof. If a string is in the language, then there exists a proof such that the verifier accepts with probability 1 (i.e., for every choice of its random string). For strings not in the language, the verifier rejects every provided “proof " with probability at least 1/2. Our result builds upon and improves a recent result of Arora and Safra [6] whose verifiers examine a nonconstant number of bits in the proof (though this number is a very slowly growing function of the input length). As a consequence we prove that no MAX SNPhard problem has a polynomial time approximation scheme, unless NP=P. The class MAX SNP was defined by Papadimitriou and Yannakakis [82] and hard problems for this class include vertex cover, maximum satisfiability, maximum cut, metric TSP, Steiner trees and shortest superstring. We also improve upon the clique hardness results of Feige, Goldwasser, Lovász, Safra and Szegedy [42], and Arora and Safra [6] and shows that there exists a positive ɛ such that approximating the maximum clique size in an Nvertex graph to within a factor of N ɛ is NPhard.
Speaker verification using Adapted Gaussian mixture models
 Digital Signal Processing
, 2000
"... In this paper we describe the major elements of MIT Lincoln Laboratory’s Gaussian mixture model (GMM)based speaker verification system used successfully in several NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluations (SREs). The system is built around the likelihood ratio test for verification, using simple but ef ..."
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Cited by 976 (42 self)
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In this paper we describe the major elements of MIT Lincoln Laboratory’s Gaussian mixture model (GMM)based speaker verification system used successfully in several NIST Speaker Recognition Evaluations (SREs). The system is built around the likelihood ratio test for verification, using simple
Optimal contracts and competitive markets with costly state verification
 Journal of Economic Theory
, 1979
"... The insight of Arrow [4] and Debreu [7] that uncertainty is easily incorporated into general equilibrium models is doubleedged. It is true that one need only index commodities by the state of nature, and classical results on the existence and optimality of competitive equilibria can be made to ..."
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Cited by 856 (9 self)
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The insight of Arrow [4] and Debreu [7] that uncertainty is easily incorporated into general equilibrium models is doubleedged. It is true that one need only index commodities by the state of nature, and classical results on the existence and optimality of competitive equilibria can be made to
Fast probabilistic algorithms for verification of polynomial identities
 J. ACM
, 1980
"... ABSTRACT The starthng success of the RabmStrassenSolovay pnmahty algorithm, together with the intriguing foundattonal posstbthty that axtoms of randomness may constttute a useful fundamental source of mathemaucal truth independent of the standard axmmaUc structure of mathemaUcs, suggests a wgorous ..."
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Cited by 533 (1 self)
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ABSTRACT The starthng success of the RabmStrassenSolovay pnmahty algorithm, together with the intriguing foundattonal posstbthty that axtoms of randomness may constttute a useful fundamental source of mathemaucal truth independent of the standard axmmaUc structure of mathemaUcs, suggests a wgorous search for probabdisuc algonthms In dlustratmn of this observaUon, vanous fast probabdlsttc algonthms, with probability of correctness guaranteed a prion, are presented for testing polynomial ldentmes and propemes of systems of polynomials. Ancdlary fast algorithms for calculating resultants and Sturm sequences are given. Probabilistlc calculatton in real anthmetlc, prewously considered by Davis, is justified ngorously, but only in a special case. Theorems of elementary geometry can be proved much more efficiently by the techmques presented than by any known arttficmlmtelhgence approach
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