Abstract. Scheme 48 is an implementation of the Scheme programming language constructed with tractability and reliability as its primary design goals. It has the structural properties of large, compiler-based Lisp implementations: it is written entirely in Scheme, is bootstrapped via its compiler, and provides numerous language extensions. It controls the complexity that ordinarily attends such large Lisp implementations through clear articulation of internal modularity and by the exclusion of features, optimizations, and generalizations that are of only marginal value. 1.