This paper presents a simple and efficient data flow algorithm for escape analysis of objects in Java programs to determine (i) if an object can be allocated on the stack; (ii) if an object is accessed only by a single thread duriing its lifetime, so that synchronization operations on that object can be removed. We introduce a new program abstraction for escape analysis, the connection graph, that is used to establish reachability rela-tionships between objects and object references. We show that the connection graph can be summarized for each method such that the same summary information may be used effectively in different calling contexts. We present an interprocedural al-gorithm that uses the above property to efficiently compute the connection graph and identify the non-escaping objects for methods and threads. The experimental results, from a proto-type implementation of our framework in the IBM High Per-formance Compiler for Java, are very promising. The percent-age of objects that may be allocated on the stack exceeds 70% of all dynamically created objects in three out of the ten bench-marks (with a median of 19%), 11 % to 92 % of all lock oper-ations are eliminated in those ten programs (with a median of 5 l%), and the overall execution time reduction ranges from 2 % to 23 % (with a median of 7%) on a 333 MHz PowerPC workstation with 128 MB memory. Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advant-age and that copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page.