## Extending definite clause grammars with scoping constructs (1990)

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Venue: | 7th Int. Conf. Logic Programming |

Citations: | 26 - 5 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Pareschi90extendingdefinite,

author = {Remo Pareschi and Dale Miller},

title = {Extending definite clause grammars with scoping constructs},

booktitle = {7th Int. Conf. Logic Programming},

year = {1990},

pages = {373--389},

publisher = {MIT Press}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

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### Abstract

Definite Clause Grammars (DCGs) have proved valuable to computational linguists since they can be used to specify phrase structured grammars. It is well known how to encode DCGs in Horn clauses. Some linguistic phenomena, such as filler-gap dependencies, are difficult to account for in a completely satisfactory way using simple phrase structured grammar. In the literature of logic grammars there have been several attempts to tackle this problem by making use of special arguments added to the DCG predicates corresponding to the grammatical symbols. In this paper we take a different line, in that we account for filler-gap dependencies by encoding DCGs within hereditary Harrop formulas, an extension of Horn clauses (proposed elsewhere as a foundation for logic programming) where implicational goals and universally quantified goals are permitted. Under this approach, filler-gap dependencies can be accounted for in terms of the operational semantics underlying hereditary Harrop formulas, in a way reminiscent of the treatment of such phenomena in Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (GPSG). The main features involved in this new formulation of DCGs are mechanisms for providing scope to constants and program clauses along with a mild use of λ-terms and λ-conversion. 1

### Citations

634 | Light linear logic
- Girard
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...se introduced at run-time to account for the gap as a “must-be-used” formula, cases of “vacuous extraction” like the one mentioned in point (ii) are ruled out 3 . Further developments in Linear Logic =-=[10]-=- permit also the possibility of distinguishing the intermediate case of formulas which can be used from 0 to n times, for n fixed; this could turn out to be quite handy for dealing with parasitic gaps... |

208 | Linear ob- jects: Logical processes with built-in inheritance
- Andreoli, Pareschi
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ulas; in a rather different operational setting, Linear Logic is for related reasons explicitly assumed as the theoretical background for the object-oriented logic programming language Linear Objects =-=[1]-=-. 14swithin a logic programming environment and formal perspicuity — have some reasonable chances to lead a harmonious life together. Additional discussion on the use of hereditary Harrop formulas to ... |

150 |
A logica,l a,na,lysis of modules in logic progra.mming
- Miller
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oposed elsewhere as a foundation for logic programming [19] and have found applications in other areas of logic programming where local information is involved, such as modules and information hiding =-=[15, 16]-=-. Under our approach, filler-gap dependencies can be directly handled in terms of the operational semantics underlying hereditary Harrop formulas in a way reminiscent of the GPSG treatment of such phe... |

102 | An Overview of λProlog
- Nadathur, Miller
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s to the body of program clauses, and then we add some weak notions of function variable quantification and λ-terms. The logic programming language described below is a subset of the λProlog language =-=[21]-=-. 2.1 Implications and Universal Quantifiers in the Body of Clauses Positive Horn clauses can be described using three syntactic categories: A for atomic formulas, G for goal formulas, and D for Horn ... |

85 |
N-Prolog: An extension of Prolog with hypothetical implications
- Gabbay, Reyle
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s as a sublanguage and for which a natural, goal-directed proof procedure exists [16, 19]. Other very similar proposals to extending Horn clause logic have also been proposed: in particular, N-Prolog =-=[6]-=- and the intuitionistic clausal system of [2, 13, 14]. Below we develop the central aspects of our extension in two steps. First, we add implications and universal quantifiers to the body of program c... |

72 |
Logic Grammars
- Abramson, Dahl
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cterizing such crucial natural language constructs as questions and relative clauses): in the tradition of logic grammars, this has led to the use of special arguments occurring inside DCG predicates =-=[4, 24, 25]-=-; in theoretical linguistics, it has produced, among other developments, the novel notion of slashed non-terminal in the framework of Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (GPSG) [7, 8] — a notion whic... |

71 |
Specifying theorem provers in a higher-order logic programming language
- Felty, Miller
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...order hereditary Harrop formulas [19] we shall need in this paper. The examples here are particularly simple but they lead into richer examples when additional linguistic phenomena are addressed. See =-=[5]-=- for applications of roughly this same extension of logic programming to theorem proving and see [18, 27] for discussions on the role of λ-terms and function quantification in logic programming implem... |

67 | Lexical scoping as universal qua.ntifica.tion
- Miller
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oposed elsewhere as a foundation for logic programming [19] and have found applications in other areas of logic programming where local information is involved, such as modules and information hiding =-=[15, 16]-=-. Under our approach, filler-gap dependencies can be directly handled in terms of the operational semantics underlying hereditary Harrop formulas in a way reminiscent of the GPSG treatment of such phe... |

66 | Unbounded dependencies and coordinate structure
- Gazdar
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...predicates [4, 24, 25]; in theoretical linguistics, it has produced, among other developments, the novel notion of slashed non-terminal in the framework of Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (GPSG) =-=[7, 8]-=- — a notion which is hard to directly account for within the expressive boundaries of Horn-based DCGs. We aim to show that the treatment of filler-gap dependencies in GPSG can be reconciled with the t... |

56 | Extraposition Grammars
- Pereira
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...cterizing such crucial natural language constructs as questions and relative clauses): in the tradition of logic grammars, this has led to the use of special arguments occurring inside DCG predicates =-=[4, 24, 25]-=-; in theoretical linguistics, it has produced, among other developments, the novel notion of slashed non-terminal in the framework of Generalized Phrase Structure Grammar (GPSG) [7, 8] — a notion whic... |

39 |
Metamorphosis Grammars
- Colmerauer
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nite Clause Grammars Definite Clause Grammars (DCGs) were introduced by Pereira and Warren [26], their direct ancestry being traceable to Colmerauer’s more complex framework of Metamorphosis Grammars =-=[3]-=-. The basic insight behind DCGs is that grammatical formalisms encoded as rewrite systems can be translated into sets of definite clauses. Each non-terminal symbol in the original grammar corresponds ... |

30 | Represenbing objects in a. logic programming language with scoping constructs
- Hodas, Da
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... requirements — computational implementability 3 It is interesting to notice that a similar strategy can be applied to the use of hereditary Harrop formulas to model object-oriented programming as in =-=[11]-=-, where object states can also be encodable as “restricted-use” formulas; in a rather different operational setting, Linear Logic is for related reasons explicitly assumed as the theoretical backgroun... |

23 | Some uses of higher-order logic in computational linguistics
- Miller, Nadathur
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y simple but they lead into richer examples when additional linguistic phenomena are addressed. See [5] for applications of roughly this same extension of logic programming to theorem proving and see =-=[18, 27]-=- for discussions on the role of λ-terms and function quantification in logic programming implementations of natural language programs. 3 Generalized Phrase Structure Grammars and Definite Clause Gramm... |

21 |
Clausal intuitionistic logic I. fixed point semantics
- McCarty
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oal-directed proof procedure exists [16, 19]. Other very similar proposals to extending Horn clause logic have also been proposed: in particular, N-Prolog [6] and the intuitionistic clausal system of =-=[2, 13, 14]-=-. Below we develop the central aspects of our extension in two steps. First, we add implications and universal quantifiers to the body of program clauses, and then we add some weak notions of function... |

18 |
Definite clauses for language analysis
- Pereira, Warren
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... as a result of Alain Colmerauer’s efforts to create a programming environment suitable both for natural language processing and deductive question-answering. In the early eighties Pereira and Warren =-=[26]-=- gave a 1srigorous definition of the framework of Definite Clause Grammars (DCGs), which is directly motivated by the possibility of encoding phrase-structure grammars as Prolog programs. DCGs represe... |

15 |
Type-driven Natural Language Analysis
- Pareschi
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e some reasonable chances to lead a harmonious life together. Additional discussion on the use of hereditary Harrop formulas to extend DCGs in the direction of theoretical linguistics can be found in =-=[23]-=- (see also [22]). On the use of λ-terms for natural language processing, see [18, 27]. Acknowledgements We are grateful to Ewan Klein, Mark Steedman, and Jean-Marc Andreoli for helpful discussions, an... |

14 | Expressing database queries with intuitionistic logic
- Bonner, McCarty, et al.
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oal-directed proof procedure exists [16, 19]. Other very similar proposals to extending Horn clause logic have also been proposed: in particular, N-Prolog [6] and the intuitionistic clausal system of =-=[2, 13, 14]-=-. Below we develop the central aspects of our extension in two steps. First, we add implications and universal quantifiers to the body of program clauses, and then we add some weak notions of function... |

9 |
A Definite Clause Version of Categorial Grammar
- Pareschi
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...le chances to lead a harmonious life together. Additional discussion on the use of hereditary Harrop formulas to extend DCGs in the direction of theoretical linguistics can be found in [23] (see also =-=[22]-=-). On the use of λ-terms for natural language processing, see [18, 27]. Acknowledgements We are grateful to Ewan Klein, Mark Steedman, and Jean-Marc Andreoli for helpful discussions, and to the ICLP r... |

6 |
Formal Philosophy Yale
- Montague
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ild the logical form for a given string via rules of semantic interpretation which come in pairs with the syntactic rules. Such semantic rules are inspired by Montague’s principle of compositionality =-=[20]-=- and view the interpretation of a sentence as obtained from the combination of the interpretations of its subconstituents, where the method of combination is given by functional application and λ-redu... |

3 | Using λ-Calculus to Represent Meaning in Logic Grammars
- Warren
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y simple but they lead into richer examples when additional linguistic phenomena are addressed. See [5] for applications of roughly this same extension of logic programming to theorem proving and see =-=[18, 27]-=- for discussions on the role of λ-terms and function quantification in logic programming implementations of natural language programs. 3 Generalized Phrase Structure Grammars and Definite Clause Gramm... |

2 |
A logic programming language with λ-abstraction, function variables, and simple unification
- Miller
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nts so that only single, most general unifiers exist. For an analysis of a non-first-order subset of λProlog that always has most general unifiers and contains most of the examples of this paper, see =-=[17]-=-. Although this logic requires second-order variable quantification and λconversion, it is only a mild extension to first-order unification: much of the richness and costs of the higher-order logic pr... |

2 |
Uniform proof systems as a foundation for logic programming
- Miller, Nadathur, et al.
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lauses, know as hereditary Harrop formulas, where implicational goals and universally quantified goals are permitted. These formulas have been proposed elsewhere as a foundation for logic programming =-=[19]-=- and have found applications in other areas of logic programming where local information is involved, such as modules and information hiding [15, 16]. Under our approach, filler-gap dependencies can b... |