## Hidden Markov processes (2002)

Venue: | IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory |

Citations: | 170 - 3 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Ephraim02hiddenmarkov,

author = {Yariv Ephraim and Neri Merhav},

title = {Hidden Markov processes},

journal = {IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory},

year = {2002},

volume = {48},

pages = {1518--1569}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Abstract—An overview of statistical and information-theoretic aspects of hidden Markov processes (HMPs) is presented. An HMP is a discrete-time finite-state homogeneous Markov chain observed through a discrete-time memoryless invariant channel. In recent years, the work of Baum and Petrie on finite-state finite-alphabet HMPs was expanded to HMPs with finite as well as continuous state spaces and a general alphabet. In particular, statistical properties and ergodic theorems for relative entropy densities of HMPs were developed. Consistency and asymptotic normality of the maximum-likelihood (ML) parameter estimator were proved under some mild conditions. Similar results were established for switching autoregressive processes. These processes generalize HMPs. New algorithms were developed for estimating the state, parameter, and order of an HMP, for universal coding and classification of HMPs, and for universal decoding of hidden Markov channels. These and other related topics are reviewed in this paper. Index Terms—Baum–Petrie algorithm, entropy ergodic theorems, finite-state channels, hidden Markov models, identifiability, Kalman filter, maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation, order estimation, recursive parameter estimation, switching autoregressive processes, Ziv inequality. I.