## Enhancing random walk state space exploration (2005)

Venue: | In Proc. of Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems (FMICS’05 |

Citations: | 15 - 3 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Pelánek05enhancingrandom,

author = {Radek Pelánek and Ivana Černá},

title = {Enhancing random walk state space exploration},

booktitle = {In Proc. of Formal Methods for Industrial Critical Systems (FMICS’05},

year = {2005},

pages = {98--105},

publisher = {ACM Press}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Abstract. We study the behaviour of the random walk method in the context of model checking and its capacity to explore a state space. We describe the methodology we have used for observing the random walk and report on the results obtained. We also describe many possible enhancements of the random walk and study their behaviour and limits. Finally, we discuss some practically important but often neglected issues like counterexamples, coverage estimation, and setting of parameters. Similar methodology can be used for studying other state space exploration techniques like bit-state hashing, partial storage methods, or partial order reduction. 1

### Citations

82 | An analysis of bitstate hashing
- HOLZMANN
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e state space. Partial search methods presented in [12, 15, 13, 22, 21] can be seen as enhancing the random walk by some additional memory. Other partial search methods are based on bit-state hashing =-=[11]-=- and on genetic manipulations [7]. The probabilistic approach is also employed by partial storage methods. These methods cover the whole state space and terminate. However, during the exploration only... |

49 | Exploring Very Large State Spaces Using Genetic Algorithms. InTACAS,pages 266–280
- Godefroid, Khurshid
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ods presented in [12, 15, 13, 22, 21] can be seen as enhancing the random walk by some additional memory. Other partial search methods are based on bit-state hashing [11] and on genetic manipulations =-=[7]-=-. The probabilistic approach is also employed by partial storage methods. These methods cover the whole state space and terminate. However, during the exploration only some states are stored reducing ... |

49 | Heuristic model checking for java programs
- Groce, Visser
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., and sweep line method [3]. Guided search combines the random exploration with the static analysis of the model. This approach has been used for guiding toward an error state in A ∗ search algorithm =-=[14, 8, 4, 20]-=- mainly. A general experience based on all the above mentioned works is that there is no an universal solution in the framework of the random walk based partial 2smethods. The right choice of a method... |

47 | Directed explicit model checking with HSF-SPIN
- Edelkamp, Lafuente, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., and sweep line method [3]. Guided search combines the random exploration with the static analysis of the model. This approach has been used for guiding toward an error state in A ∗ search algorithm =-=[14, 8, 4, 20]-=- mainly. A general experience based on all the above mentioned works is that there is no an universal solution in the framework of the random walk based partial 2smethods. The right choice of a method... |

47 |
Protocol verification using reachability analysis: the state space explosion problem and relief strategies
- Lin, Chu
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... random walk does not use any memory at all working with an actual state only and does not store any information about previously visited parts of the state space. Partial search methods presented in =-=[12, 15, 13, 22, 21]-=- can be seen as enhancing the random walk by some additional memory. Other partial search methods are based on bit-state hashing [11] and on genetic manipulations [7]. The probabilistic approach is al... |

44 | A sweep-line method for state space exploration
- Christensen, Kristensen, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the exploration only some states are stored reducing thus the overall memory requirements. Partial storage methods include state space caching [6, 23, 5], selective storing [2], and sweep line method =-=[3]-=-. Guided search combines the random exploration with the static analysis of the model. This approach has been used for guiding toward an error state in A ∗ search algorithm [14, 8, 4, 20] mainly. A ge... |

43 | Monte Carlo Model Checking
- Grosu, Smolka
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nding bugs in real models. Recently, random walk has been used for verification in the model checker Lurch [18, 17]. Formal foundation for model checking by random walk were given by Grosu and Smolka =-=[9]-=-. There is an extensive theoretical work about random walks (in the mathematical setting a special case of Markov chains). However, most of the results concern undirected graphs whereas the state spac... |

38 |
State Space Caching Revisited
- Godefroid, Holzmann, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ver the whole state space and terminate. However, during the exploration only some states are stored reducing thus the overall memory requirements. Partial storage methods include state space caching =-=[6, 23, 5]-=-, selective storing [2], and sweep line method [3]. Guided search combines the random exploration with the static analysis of the model. This approach has been used for guiding toward an error state i... |

35 |
Protocol validation by random state exploration
- WEST
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... specific state space, that it is very difficult to predict and that 100% state space coverage is not usually possible. Related Work The random walk method was first applied to model checking by West =-=[24]-=- who demonstrated on a case study that the random walk could be a reasonable technique for finding bugs in real models. Recently, random walk has been used for verification in the model checker Lurch ... |

26 |
Algorithms for Automated Protocol Verification
- Holzmann
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... random walk does not use any memory at all working with an actual state only and does not store any information about previously visited parts of the state space. Partial search methods presented in =-=[12, 15, 13, 22, 21]-=- can be seen as enhancing the random walk by some additional memory. Other partial search methods are based on bit-state hashing [11] and on genetic manipulations [7]. The probabilistic approach is al... |

26 | Random walk based heuristic algorithms for distributed memory model checking
- Sivaraj, Gopalakrishnan
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... random walk does not use any memory at all working with an actual state only and does not store any information about previously visited parts of the state space. Partial search methods presented in =-=[12, 15, 13, 22, 21]-=- can be seen as enhancing the random walk by some additional memory. Other partial search methods are based on bit-state hashing [11] and on genetic manipulations [7]. The probabilistic approach is al... |

21 | On the random walk method for protocol testing
- Mihail, Papadimitriou
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ere have been several attempts to restrict the class of models in order to guarantee the effectiveness of the random walk, e.g. Eulerian directed graph [10] and systems of symmetric dyadic flip flops =-=[16]-=-. Unfortunately, the resulting classes of models are very small and are not of practical interest in model checking. Pure random walk does not use any memory at all working with an actual state only a... |

21 | Typical Structural Properties of State Spaces
- Pelánek
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nts. The graphs can be grouped into the following three categories. Random graphs Random graphs have been used quite often to demonstrate the behaviour of model checking algorithms and techniques. In =-=[19]-=- we have argued that graphs which occur in model checking applications have different structural properties than random graphs. Our experience is that the behaviour of the random walk on random graphs... |

21 | Guided invariant model checking based on abstraction and symbolic pattern databases - Qian, Nymeyer - 2004 |

20 |
To Store or Not to Store
- Behrmann, Larsen, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...terminate. However, during the exploration only some states are stored reducing thus the overall memory requirements. Partial storage methods include state space caching [6, 23, 5], selective storing =-=[2]-=-, and sweep line method [3]. Guided search combines the random exploration with the static analysis of the model. This approach has been used for guiding toward an error state in A ∗ search algorithm ... |

20 |
Probabilistic state space search
- Kuehlmann, McMillan, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., and sweep line method [3]. Guided search combines the random exploration with the static analysis of the model. This approach has been used for guiding toward an error state in A ∗ search algorithm =-=[14, 8, 4, 20]-=- mainly. A general experience based on all the above mentioned works is that there is no an universal solution in the framework of the random walk based partial 2smethods. The right choice of a method... |

15 | Lurch: A Lightweight Alternative to Model Checking
- Owen, Menzies
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... who demonstrated on a case study that the random walk could be a reasonable technique for finding bugs in real models. Recently, random walk has been used for verification in the model checker Lurch =-=[18, 17]-=-. Formal foundation for model checking by random walk were given by Grosu and Smolka [9]. There is an extensive theoretical work about random walks (in the mathematical setting a special case of Marko... |

14 | Exploiting transition locality in automatic verification of finite state concurrent systems
- Penna, Intrigila, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ver the whole state space and terminate. However, during the exploration only some states are stored reducing thus the overall memory requirements. Partial storage methods include state space caching =-=[6, 23, 5]-=-, selective storing [2], and sweep line method [3]. Guided search combines the random exploration with the static analysis of the model. This approach has been used for guiding toward an error state i... |

12 |
State caching reconsidered
- Geldenhuys
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ver the whole state space and terminate. However, during the exploration only some states are stored reducing thus the overall memory requirements. Partial storage methods include state space caching =-=[6, 23, 5]-=-, selective storing [2], and sweep line method [3]. Guided search combines the random exploration with the static analysis of the model. This approach has been used for guiding toward an error state i... |

8 | Model checking by random walk
- Haslum
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ound on the expected coverage time, is known. There have been several attempts to restrict the class of models in order to guarantee the effectiveness of the random walk, e.g. Eulerian directed graph =-=[10]-=- and systems of symmetric dyadic flip flops [16]. Unfortunately, the resulting classes of models are very small and are not of practical interest in model checking. Pure random walk does not use any m... |

8 | A probabilistic approach to automatic verification of concurrent systems
- Tronci, Penna, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

6 | On the advantages of approximate vs. complete verification: Bigger models, faster, less memory, usually accurate
- Owen, Menzies, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... who demonstrated on a case study that the random walk could be a reasonable technique for finding bugs in real models. Recently, random walk has been used for verification in the model checker Lurch =-=[18, 17]-=-. Formal foundation for model checking by random walk were given by Grosu and Smolka [9]. There is an extensive theoretical work about random walks (in the mathematical setting a special case of Marko... |

1 |
Parallel random walk search for LTL violations
- Jones, Sorber
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context |