## An Effective Congestion Driven Placement Framework (2002)

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Venue: | ISPD |

Citations: | 47 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Brenner02aneffective,

author = {Ulrich Brenner and Andre Rohe},

title = {An Effective Congestion Driven Placement Framework},

booktitle = {ISPD},

year = {2002},

pages = {6--11}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

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### Abstract

We present a fast but reliable way to detect routing criticalities in VLSI chips. In addition, we show how this congestion estimation can be incorporated into a partitioning based placement algorithm. Different to previous approaches, we do not rerun parts of the placement algorithm or apply a post-placement optimization, but we use our congestion estimator for a dynamic avoidance of routability problems in one single run of the placement algorithm. Computational experiments on chips with up to 1,300,000 cells are presented: The framework reduces the usage of the most critical routing edges by 9.0% on average, the running time increase for the placement is about 8.7%. However, due to the smaller congestion, the running time of routing tools can be decreased drastically, so the total time for placement and (global) routing is decreased by 47% on average.

### Citations

239 |
Algorithms for VLSI physical design automation
- Sherwani
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ion into our terminology for placement and routing. A very good overview over the field of VLSI physical design is given in the books of Sait and Youssef [11], Sarrafzadeh and Wong [12], and Sherwani =-=[14]-=-. A chip consists of a set of cells, a set of nets and a rectangular chip area . Each cell is given as a rectangular box of certain size s s, and each net connects a... |

183 | Generic Global Placement and Floorplanning
- Eisenmann, Johannes
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...or the method we describe is a partitioning algorithm as described above, but it should be noted that the ideas of our framework can be applied to other placement ideas (e.g. force directed placement =-=[4]-=- or simulated annealing [13],[21]) as well. The running time of the underlying placement algorithm will hardly increase with our framework; the extra work we need is a (very fast) congestion estimatio... |

113 | Can recursive bisection alone produce routable placements
- Caldwell, Kahng, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... es and call the routine again for the instances & fl & . with (eh*,flffiffiffifl.- . The recursion stops when the number of cells in a region is small enough. Other authors (e.g. =-=[2]-=-) follow a similar approach, but just bipartition the set of cells recursively. After this global placement, the cells are legalised in the so-called detailed placement phase. In this paper, we just c... |

87 |
VLSI Placement and Global Routing Using Simulated Annealing
- Sechen
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s a partitioning algorithm as described above, but it should be noted that the ideas of our framework can be applied to other placement ideas (e.g. force directed placement [4] or simulated annealing =-=[13]-=-,[21]) as well. The running time of the underlying placement algorithm will hardly increase with our framework; the extra work we need is a (very fast) congestion estimation and a few additional repar... |

83 | Dragon2000: Standard-cell placement tool for large industry circuits
- Wang, Yang, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...traints for wires and vias have to be considered. Other rules exist, we will not go into further detail on them. 2.2 Basic Structure of Placement Algorithms Many placement algorithms (e.g. [6], [15], =-=[20]-=-) work with a recursive partitioning approach: Given a rectangular area and a set sof cells, the area is divided by a horizontal and a vertical cutline into four parts fiffflffiffiffif... |

78 | Estimating routing congestion using probabilistic analysis
- Lou, Krishnamoorthy, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...les, for each tile border the expected number of wires routed through this border is compared to the number of free routing tracks that cross the border. For example, the approaches in [3], [5], [7], =-=[8]-=-, and [23] follow this idea. The algorithms differ mainly in the way they handle multi-terminal nets and blockages and in their probabilistic distributions for the interconnections. A probabilistic ro... |

74 | Algorithms for Large-Scale Flat Placement”, to appear
- Vygen
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e constraints for wires and vias have to be considered. Other rules exist, we will not go into further detail on them. 2.2 Basic Structure of Placement Algorithms Many placement algorithms (e.g. [6], =-=[15]-=-, [20]) work with a recursive partitioning approach: Given a rectangular area and a set sof cells, the area is divided by a horizontal and a vertical cutline into four parts fiffflffiffi... |

71 |
RISA: Accurate and Efficient Placement Routability Modeling
- Cheng
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d into small tiles, for each tile border the expected number of wires routed through this border is compared to the number of free routing tracks that cross the border. For example, the approaches in =-=[3]-=-, [5], [7], [8], and [23] follow this idea. The algorithms differ mainly in the way they handle multi-terminal nets and blockages and in their probabilistic distributions for the interconnections. A p... |

60 |
Simulated Annealing for VLSI Design
- Wong, Leong, et al.
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...artitioning algorithm as described above, but it should be noted that the ideas of our framework can be applied to other placement ideas (e.g. force directed placement [4] or simulated annealing [13],=-=[21]-=-) as well. The running time of the underlying placement algorithm will hardly increase with our framework; the extra work we need is a (very fast) congestion estimation and a few additional repartitio... |

54 | Congestion Minimization During Placement
- Wang, Yang, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sumed. Most authors describe not only ideas to detect congestion, but also propose ways to reduce it. Often congestion reduction is done in detailed placement or in a post-placement-optimization (see =-=[16]-=-, [17], [18], [19], and [23]). Other authors incorporate the goal of congestion reduction into the global placement: In [10], it is shown how quadratic placement can be modified in order to avoid rout... |

52 | Partitioning-Based Standard-Cell Global Placement with an Exact Objective
- Huang, Kahng
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...stance constraints for wires and vias have to be considered. Other rules exist, we will not go into further detail on them. 2.2 Basic Structure of Placement Algorithms Many placement algorithms (e.g. =-=[6]-=-, [15], [20]) work with a recursive partitioning approach: Given a rectangular area and a set sof cells, the area is divided by a horizontal and a vertical cutline into four parts fiffflf... |

45 |
An introduction to VLSI physical design
- Sarrafzadeh, Wong
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e a short introduction into our terminology for placement and routing. A very good overview over the field of VLSI physical design is given in the books of Sait and Youssef [11], Sarrafzadeh and Wong =-=[12]-=-, and Sherwani [14]. A chip consists of a set of cells, a set of nets and a rectangular chip area . Each cell is given as a rectangular box of certain size s s, and ... |

42 |
Global routing by new approximation algorithms for multicommodity flow
- Albrecht
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...or the chip as well as a rough topology for each net. The main drawback of existing global routing tools is the running time. A global router using sophisticated methods based on multicommodity flows =-=[1]-=- might take 24h or more on a chip with 500,000 nets. Though just a congestion estimation with a global router does not take that long, it is in general too slow because we have to call such an estimat... |

35 | Congestion Estimation During Top-down Placement
- Yang, Kastner, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...distributions for the interconnections. A probabilistic routing estimator of this type will also be an important part of our congestion estimation. Other methods to detect congestion are described in =-=[22]-=-, where Rent’s Rule is used to estimate the peak congestion value and regional congestions on a chip, and in [18], where a normal distribution of the number of nets per tile is assumed. Most authors d... |

30 | Congestion Driven Quadratic Placement
- Parakh, Brown, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tion is done in detailed placement or in a post-placement-optimization (see [16], [17], [18], [19], and [23]). Other authors incorporate the goal of congestion reduction into the global placement: In =-=[10]-=-, it is shown how quadratic placement can be modified in order to avoid routing problems; in [9], the authors describe a partitioning approach that works similar to Min-Cut partitioning, but has minim... |

28 |
Congestion-Driven Placement Using a New Multi-partitioning Heuristic
- Mayrhofer, Lauther
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...], and [23]). Other authors incorporate the goal of congestion reduction into the global placement: In [10], it is shown how quadratic placement can be modified in order to avoid routing problems; in =-=[9]-=-, the authors describe a partitioning approach that works similar to Min-Cut partitioning, but has minimization of congestion as a goal. The partitioning based algorithm in [5] increases the estimated... |

20 | Model and Minimization of Routing Congestion
- Wang, Sarrafzadeh
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... Most authors describe not only ideas to detect congestion, but also propose ways to reduce it. Often congestion reduction is done in detailed placement or in a post-placement-optimization (see [16], =-=[17]-=-, [18], [19], and [23]). Other authors incorporate the goal of congestion reduction into the global placement: In [10], it is shown how quadratic placement can be modified in order to avoid routing pr... |

13 |
A new congestion-driven placement algorithm based on cell inflation
- Hou, Yu, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o small tiles, for each tile border the expected number of wires routed through this border is compared to the number of free routing tracks that cross the border. For example, the approaches in [3], =-=[5]-=-, [7], [8], and [23] follow this idea. The algorithms differ mainly in the way they handle multi-terminal nets and blockages and in their probabilistic distributions for the interconnections. A probab... |

10 | Multi-center congestion estimation and minimization during placement
- Wang, Yang, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...part of our congestion estimation. Other methods to detect congestion are described in [22], where Rent’s Rule is used to estimate the peak congestion value and regional congestions on a chip, and in =-=[18]-=-, where a normal distribution of the number of nets per tile is assumed. Most authors describe not only ideas to detect congestion, but also propose ways to reduce it. Often congestion reduction is do... |

7 | Stochastic congestion model for VLSI systems
- Hung, Flynn
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ll tiles, for each tile border the expected number of wires routed through this border is compared to the number of free routing tracks that cross the border. For example, the approaches in [3], [5], =-=[7]-=-, [8], and [23] follow this idea. The algorithms differ mainly in the way they handle multi-terminal nets and blockages and in their probabilistic distributions for the interconnections. A probabilist... |

3 | Congestion reduction during placement with provably good approximation bound
- Yang, Kastner, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...each tile border the expected number of wires routed through this border is compared to the number of free routing tracks that cross the border. For example, the approaches in [3], [5], [7], [8], and =-=[23]-=- follow this idea. The algorithms differ mainly in the way they handle multi-terminal nets and blockages and in their probabilistic distributions for the interconnections. A probabilistic routing esti... |