## An overview of hybrid simulation phenomena and their support by simulation packages (1999)

Citations: | 51 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Mosterman99anoverview,

author = {Pieter J. Mosterman},

title = {An overview of hybrid simulation phenomena and their support by simulation packages},

booktitle = {},

year = {1999},

pages = {165--177},

publisher = {Springer-Verlag}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Continuous system dynamics can be described by, possibly large, systems of differential equations. These can be either ordinary differential equations (ODEs) or contain algebraic constraints as well to form differential and algebraic equations (DAEs). Complex systems, such as aircraft, often operate in different modes of continuous operation and when mode changes occur, the continuous dynamics change abruptly. Even small physical components may operate in different modes, e.g., a diode can operate as a short or open circuit, requiring abrupt discrete changes in the system of equations. Hybrid systems combine the continuous behavior evolution specified by differential equations with discontinuous changes specified by discrete event switching logic. Numerical simulation of continuous behavior and of discrete behavior is well understood. However, to facilitate simulation of mixed continuous/discrete systems a number of specific hybrid simulation issues must be addressed. This paper presents an overview of

### Citations

313 |
Switching and Finite Automata Theory
- Kohavi
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...with respect to some error measure given the dynamic behavior of the system. Discrete simulation is often based on the particular description formalism, such asPetri nets [21] and nite state machines =-=[12]-=-. Typical is the use of random distribution functions to model, e.g., queue processing and to facilitate discrete phenomena such as nondeterminism and parallelism. Recently, there is a growing interes... |

70 |
Object-oriented Modeling and Simulation of Hybrid Systems
- Andersson
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... times which can be treated e ciently [7]. { state events: If events occur because of system variables crossing threshold values, the time of their occurrence is not known a priori. In this situation =-=[2,7,23]-=-, the event needs to be detected, and its time of occurrence needs to be located. { simulation model: The system of equations may change. Blocks of sorted and solved equation may simply appear or disa... |

58 | The Shift Programming Language and Run-Time System for Dynamic Networks of Hybrid Automata
- Deshpande, Gollu, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...on of continuous time and discrete event dynamic systems [2]. { Shift is a programming language for describing dynamic networks of hybrid automata, developed at the University of California, Berkeley =-=[8]-=-. { SIMULINK is a block diagram based modeling and simulation environment of the MathWorks [24]. { Smile is a simulator for energy systems of GMD FIRST, Berlin [25]. { 20-SIM ("Twente Sim") is a model... |

56 |
Coulomb friction in two-dimensional rigid body systems, Zeitschrft fur Angewandte Mathematik un Mechanik
- Lotstedt
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e Falling Rod Consider the rigid rod sliding on a rough surface in Fig. 2. In case of Coulomb friction, the friction force Ff depends on the normal force FN by a constant coe cient , i.e., Ff = jFN j =-=[14]-=-, active in the direction opposite to vA�x, thevelocity of the contact point at the surface. Fy is the kinetic force exerted by the center of mass in the vertical direction. Combined with the gravitat... |

30 |
Combined Continuous/Discrete System Simulation by Use of
- Cellier
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t δt δt ε (a) (b) (c) Fig. 4. Chattering. Summary The following hybrid simulation phenomena can be identi ed. { time events: Events are generated at predetermined times which can be treated e ciently =-=[7]-=-. { state events: If events occur because of system variables crossing threshold values, the time of their occurrence is not known a priori. In this situation [2,7,23], the event needs to be detected,... |

28 |
The Modelling and Simulation of Combined Discrete/Continuous Processes
- Barton
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ted modeling and simulation environment for education and the professional engineer [9]. { gPROMS was initially developed at Imperial College, London for process modeling, simulation and optimization =-=[3]-=-. It is now commercially available. { HyBrSim is an experimental hybrid bond graph modeling and simulation tool based on physical principles developed at the DLR Oberpfa enhofen [19]. { Omola is devel... |

24 | Hybrid dynamic systems : a hybrid bond graph modeling paradigm and its application in diagnosis, Thesis
- Mosterman
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... upon collision, because this mode was instantaneously departed. Instead, the values should be derived from the nal valuesinthelast mode of continuous behavior, i.e., where the rod was falling freely =-=[16]-=-. An Evaporator Vessel In a fast breeder reactor, an evaporator vessel stores hot sodium and warms water that ows through a helical coil inside the vessel. As a safety mechanism, an over ow that conne... |

10 | Object-Oriented Behavioural Modelling of Mechatronic Systems
- Kasper, Koch
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...imulation of recipedriven production in complex multi-purpose batch plants [26]. { DOORS is a prototype distributed real-time simulator for mechatronic design developed at the University of Magdeburg =-=[11]-=-. { Dymola provides a powerful object oriented modeling and simulation environment for education and the professional engineer [9]. { gPROMS was initially developed at Imperial College, London for pro... |

9 |
Modelling, Simulation and Analysis with 20-Sim
- Broenink
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...vironment of the MathWorks [24]. { Smile is a simulator for energy systems of GMD FIRST, Berlin [25]. { 20-SIM ("Twente Sim") is a modeling and simulation program developed at the University ofTwente =-=[4]-=-. Table 1 shows that both time and state events are typically handled by these packages, though the implementation may vary [23]. Also, they facilitate adding and removing equations that do not change... |

9 | Modelling from physical principles
- Cellier, Elmqvist, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ating the Simulation Model This section describes how models are processed to achieve aDAE form. 1. Complex dynamic system models are composed of declarative submodels speci ed by noncausal equations =-=[6]-=-. After the complete system of equations is compiled a sorting procedure assigns computational causality. Inmatrix form, this corresponds to a lower triangular form. Circular dependencies between vari... |

8 |
Sliding mode model semantics and simulation for hybrid systems
- Mosterman, Zhao, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...vent causes continuous integration to become excessively slow. An equivalence relation eliminates the fast chattering motion, but preserve the dynamics of the slow motion along the chattering surface =-=[20]-=-. { Dirac pulses: Discontinuous changes in continuous variables may cause Dirac pulses to occur. If their magnitudes are numerically approximated, comparison may be a ected by non-Dirac type variables... |

4 |
Simulation of Discontinuities
- Mosterman, Biswas
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n and optimization [3]. It is now commercially available. { HyBrSim is an experimental hybrid bond graph modeling and simulation tool based on physical principles developed at the DLR Oberpfa enhofen =-=[19]-=-. { Omola is developed at the Lund Institute of Technology for modeling and simulation of continuous time and discrete event dynamic systems [2]. { Shift is a programming language for describing dynam... |

3 |
Integration of the discrete and the continuous behaviour in the hybrid Chi simulator
- Fabian, Beek, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ct to their support of the described hybrid features, see Table 1. { is a simulation environment initially developed for modeling and simulation of manufacturing plants at the University of Eindhoven =-=[10]-=-. { ABACUSS is a derivative workofthegPROMS software [1]. It is developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. { BaSiP is developed at the University ofDortmund for simulation of recipedriven... |

2 |
Maximum Weighted Matching for High Index Di#erential Algebraic Equations, Doctoral thesis
- Bujakiewicz
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...er, resulting in a block lower triangular (BLT) matrix structure of the sorted equations. 2. After sorting, the complexity of the simulation problem, indicated by theindex, needs to be su ciently low =-=[5]-=-. Higher-index problems contain algebraic constraints on time derivative variables, and the system of equations needs to be solved to arriveatalower index, e.g., by Pantelides' algorithm [22] and the ... |

2 |
A Case Study in Tool-Aided Analysis
- Kowalewski, Fritz, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... features speci c to hybrid simulation are incorporated by anumber of simulation packages. It does not evaluate robustness or quality of the implemented solutions. For additional information refer to =-=[13]-=-. Generating the Simulation Model This section describes how models are processed to achieve aDAE form. 1. Complex dynamic system models are composed of declarative submodels speci ed by noncausal equ... |

2 |
State space projection onto linear DAE manifolds using conservation principles
- Mosterman
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of the colliding bodies). The system of equations may have tobeintegrated to derive physically consistent initial values for a new mode. This ensures conservation of the thermodynamic extensity holds =-=[17]-=-. { event iteration: When an event occurs, new system variable values may immediately trigger a further event. Two types of event iteration exist [18], the state vector is invariant across the entire ... |

2 |
Principles for Modeling, Veri cation, and Simulation of Hybrid Dynamic Systems
- Mosterman, Biswas
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...conservation of the thermodynamic extensity holds [17]. { event iteration: When an event occurs, new system variable values may immediately trigger a further event. Two types of event iteration exist =-=[18]-=-, the state vector is invariant across the entire iteration (e.g., the falling rod that immediately starts to slide), and the state vector is updated after each iteration step (e.g., the sequence of c... |

1 |
A new technique for solving high-index di erential-algebraic equations
- Mattsson, Soderlind
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ntain algebraic constraints on time derivative variables, and the system of equations needs to be solved to arriveatalower index, e.g., by Pantelides' algorithm [22] and the dummy derivative approach =-=[15]-=-. 3. Next, consistent initial values of the state variables need to be calculated from user speci ed values. For example, to start simulation from steady state, all time derivative values can be set t... |