## Electro-Thermal Circuit Simulation Using Simulator Coupling (1997)

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Venue: | IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integration Systems |

Citations: | 11 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Wünsche97electro-thermalcircuit,

author = {Stefan Wünsche and Christoph Clauß and Peter Schwarz and Frank Winkler},

title = {Electro-Thermal Circuit Simulation Using Simulator Coupling},

journal = {IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integration Systems},

year = {1997},

volume = {5},

pages = {277--282}

}

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### Abstract

Abstract- The paper presents a methodology for simulating the static and dynamic performance of integrated circuits in the presence of electro-thermal interactions on the integrated circuit die. The technique is based on the coupling of a finite element method (FEM) program with a circuit simulator. In difference to other known simulator couplings a time step algorithm is used. Its implementation into simulation tools is described. The thermal modeling of the die/package structure and the extended modeling of the electronic circuit is discussed. Simulation results which indicate the capabilities of the methodology for electrothermal simulation are compared to experimental results. Index Terms- Analog modeling with behavioral languages, circuit simulation, electro-thermal circuit simulation, finite element simulation, simulator coupling, thermal modeling. I.

### Citations

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Citation Context ...ion 1 -> time step control In the case of file transfer one simulator writes the results into a file and the other simulator reads these data. A more comfortable and faster solution is the use of PVM =-=[27]-=-. Parallel Virtual Machine is a software which supports the data exchange between different programs on several platforms. PVM provides both a C and FORTRAN library of functions to initialize connecti... |

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Citation Context ...ed by ANSYS to calculate the complicated thermal model. There is a good agreement between simulated and measured data [28]. B. Op Amp Circuit The simulated schematic of the 741 is depicted in Fig. 10 =-=[29]-=-. Fig. 11 shows the simplified layout of the circuit. The dissipation characteristic of the class AB-output stage with zero dissipation at Vo = 0 and dissipation peaks at Vo = +VCC/2 and -VEE/2 leads ... |

32 | Relaxation-based electrical simulation
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Citation Context ...ure of stepsize control may be interpreted as relaxation method [22] performing only one iteration. Therefore, it is related to the simple noniterative timing analysis [23]. The arising disadvantages =-=[24]-=- will be compensated by the automatic [tb,te] time window control. The characteristics of the procedure following below have been determined by numeric test calculations: • Convergence should not be e... |

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Citation Context ...rom a layout tool. Finally, the created thermal models should be verified using measurements. A large variety of approaches dedicated to thermal modeling can be found in literature. Finite difference =-=[8]-=-,[9], finite element [10],[11], boundary element approaches [12], fourier series [13], analytical solutions [14] and thermal networks [15],[16] are employed. Besides these methods to solve the heat eq... |

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Citation Context ...ansistor Q1 and Q2 is depicted in Fig. 14. The dc curve is compared to the dc curve without thermal interactions (Fig. 12). The simulation results agree with simulation and measured data published in =-=[31]-=-. It takes the coupled simulation eight hours to simulate the behavior of the electro-thermal system on a Sun Sparc20. V. CONCLUSIONS A method to simulate the electro-thermal behavior of integrated ci... |

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Citation Context ...y the user. The heuristic procedure of stepsize control may be interpreted as relaxation method [22] performing only one iteration. Therefore, it is related to the simple noniterative timing analysis =-=[23]-=-. The arising disadvantages [24] will be compensated by the automatic [tb,te] time window control. The characteristics of the procedure following below have been determined by numeric test calculation... |

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Citation Context ...f the circuit. The dissipation characteristic of the class AB-output stage with zero dissipation at Vo = 0 and dissipation peaks at Vo = +VCC/2 and -VEE/2 leads to small temperature gradients on chip =-=[30]-=-. Thus the critical transistor pairs Q1-Q2, Q3-Q4, and Q5-Q6 of the input stage experience different temperatures. Assuming a 1kΩ resistor Rl loading at the output, a severe distortion of the transfer... |

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Citation Context ...egrated circuits - the direct method and the relaxation method (see Fig. 1). The direct method is based on modeling the thermal and electronic behavior of the circuit for a single simulation tool [1],=-=[2]-=-. For instance, the thermal behavior can be described by an analog behavioral language [3], [4] and the electric circuit is given by a netlist. The simulation is processed by circuit and system simula... |

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Citation Context ...cal solutions [14] and thermal networks [15],[16] are employed. Besides these methods to solve the heat equation, methods to extract models from experimental results or thermal simulation are applied =-=[17]-=-,[18]. Most of them are valid only in steady-state cases and for linear heat equations. Fig. 3 gives an overview of the thermal modeling approaches. Apart from the thermal modeling process itself, bot... |

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Citation Context ...-8210(97)06351-8. thermal modeling process is complicated due to the complex structure of die, header, and package. The relaxation method is based on the coupling of a thermal and a circuit simulator =-=[5]-=--[7]. The set of thermal and electric equations is solved separately. In general, the modeling process for the relaxation method is not so complicated, because the special simulators are designed for ... |

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Citation Context ...he created thermal models should be verified using measurements. A large variety of approaches dedicated to thermal modeling can be found in literature. Finite difference [8],[9], finite element [10],=-=[11]-=-, boundary element approaches [12], fourier series [13], analytical solutions [14] and thermal networks [15],[16] are employed. Besides these methods to solve the heat equation, methods to extract mod... |

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Citation Context ...olutions [14] and thermal networks [15],[16] are employed. Besides these methods to solve the heat equation, methods to extract models from experimental results or thermal simulation are applied [17],=-=[18]-=-. Most of them are valid only in steady-state cases and for linear heat equations. Fig. 3 gives an overview of the thermal modeling approaches. Apart from the thermal modeling process itself, both met... |

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Citation Context ...278 Standard Model Electro-Thermal Model B C E Modeling Fig. 2. Electro-thermal BJT model. Direct Method Relaxation Method Electro - Thermal Model Electric Network Power Dissipation Temperature SABER =-=[21]-=-. The realization of coupled simulation is shown at the example of a current mirror circuit as well as an op amp circuit in Section IV. Section V points out the advantages and disadvantages of the rea... |

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Citation Context ...urements. A large variety of approaches dedicated to thermal modeling can be found in literature. Finite difference [8],[9], finite element [10],[11], boundary element approaches [12], fourier series =-=[13]-=-, analytical solutions [14] and thermal networks [15],[16] are employed. Besides these methods to solve the heat equation, methods to extract models from experimental results or thermal simulation are... |

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Citation Context ...tended electrothermal model of the BJT with an additional thermal pin T. The „through“ value at this pin is the power dissipation of the device and the „across“ value is the temperature of the device =-=[19]-=-. The power dissipation value is calculated from the electronic part of the model and the temperature at the thermal pin influences the electronic behavior of the device. Now the temperature is a sign... |

2 |
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Citation Context ...thod is based on modeling the thermal and electronic behavior of the circuit for a single simulation tool [1],[2]. For instance, the thermal behavior can be described by an analog behavioral language =-=[3]-=-, [4] and the electric circuit is given by a netlist. The simulation is processed by circuit and system simulators like SABER, ELDO or Spectre. The Manuscript received October 31, 1996; revised May 15... |

2 |
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Citation Context ...fects in a current mirror circuit as well as thermal interactions in an operational amplifier circuit. A. Current mirror circuit The self-heating of a current mirror circuit (see Fig. 8) described in =-=[28]-=- was analyzed using. Due to the power dissipation of the integrated bipolar junction transistors a thermal gradient on chip is produced. The temperature difference between the transistors Q1 and Q2 in... |

1 |
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Citation Context ... integrated circuits - the direct method and the relaxation method (see Fig. 1). The direct method is based on modeling the thermal and electronic behavior of the circuit for a single simulation tool =-=[1]-=-,[2]. For instance, the thermal behavior can be described by an analog behavioral language [3], [4] and the electric circuit is given by a netlist. The simulation is processed by circuit and system si... |

1 |
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Citation Context ...is based on modeling the thermal and electronic behavior of the circuit for a single simulation tool [1],[2]. For instance, the thermal behavior can be described by an analog behavioral language [3], =-=[4]-=- and the electric circuit is given by a netlist. The simulation is processed by circuit and system simulators like SABER, ELDO or Spectre. The Manuscript received October 31, 1996; revised May 15, 199... |

1 |
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Citation Context ...0(97)06351-8. thermal modeling process is complicated due to the complex structure of die, header, and package. The relaxation method is based on the coupling of a thermal and a circuit simulator [5]-=-=[7]-=-. The set of thermal and electric equations is solved separately. In general, the modeling process for the relaxation method is not so complicated, because the special simulators are designed for a pa... |

1 |
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Citation Context ...a layout tool. Finally, the created thermal models should be verified using measurements. A large variety of approaches dedicated to thermal modeling can be found in literature. Finite difference [8],=-=[9]-=-, finite element [10],[11], boundary element approaches [12], fourier series [13], analytical solutions [14] and thermal networks [15],[16] are employed. Besides these methods to solve the heat equati... |

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Citation Context ...ly, the created thermal models should be verified using measurements. A large variety of approaches dedicated to thermal modeling can be found in literature. Finite difference [8],[9], finite element =-=[10]-=-,[11], boundary element approaches [12], fourier series [13], analytical solutions [14] and thermal networks [15],[16] are employed. Besides these methods to solve the heat equation, methods to extrac... |

1 |
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Citation Context ...e verified using measurements. A large variety of approaches dedicated to thermal modeling can be found in literature. Finite difference [8],[9], finite element [10],[11], boundary element approaches =-=[12]-=-, fourier series [13], analytical solutions [14] and thermal networks [15],[16] are employed. Besides these methods to solve the heat equation, methods to extract models from experimental results or t... |

1 |
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Citation Context ...f approaches dedicated to thermal modeling can be found in literature. Finite difference [8],[9], finite element [10],[11], boundary element approaches [12], fourier series [13], analytical solutions =-=[14]-=- and thermal networks [15],[16] are employed. Besides these methods to solve the heat equation, methods to extract models from experimental results or thermal simulation are applied [17],[18]. Most of... |

1 |
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Citation Context ...thermal modeling can be found in literature. Finite difference [8],[9], finite element [10],[11], boundary element approaches [12], fourier series [13], analytical solutions [14] and thermal networks =-=[15]-=-,[16] are employed. Besides these methods to solve the heat equation, methods to extract models from experimental results or thermal simulation are applied [17],[18]. Most of them are valid only in st... |

1 |
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Citation Context ...al modeling can be found in literature. Finite difference [8],[9], finite element [10],[11], boundary element approaches [12], fourier series [13], analytical solutions [14] and thermal networks [15],=-=[16]-=- are employed. Besides these methods to solve the heat equation, methods to extract models from experimental results or thermal simulation are applied [17],[18]. Most of them are valid only in steady-... |

1 |
et al., "Waveform relaxation: Theory and practice
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Citation Context ...ergence parameter. The values of these parameters depend on the simulated system and have to be chosen by the user. The heuristic procedure of stepsize control may be interpreted as relaxation method =-=[22]-=- performing only one iteration. Therefore, it is related to the simple noniterative timing analysis [23]. The arising disadvantages [24] will be compensated by the automatic [tb,te] time window contro... |

1 |
Simulation mikrosystemtechnischer Aufgaben mit gekoppelten Simulatoren
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ical System (IC, MCM, PCB) ∂ ⎛ ∂T ky ⎞ ∂ ⎛ ∂T kz ⎞ ∂T + + = – Q ∂y⎝ ∂y⎠ ∂z⎝ ∂z⎠ V + ρC ⎛ ⎞ p⎝∂t⎠ FEM FDM BEM because both simulators have the possibility to include routines, i.e control routines. In =-=[25]-=-, an implementation is described in which ANSYS is the master and controls the coupling. The simulator coupling pointed out in this paper is based on SABER as the master. Analog behavioral languages l... |