## Virtual Craniofacial Reconstruction from Computed Tomography Image Sequences Exhibiting Multiple Fractures (2006)

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Venue: | Proc. of the Thirteenth IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing (ICIP |

Citations: | 1 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Chowdhury06virtualcraniofacial,

author = {A. S. Chowdhury and S. M. Bh and R. W. Robinson and J. C. Yu},

title = {Virtual Craniofacial Reconstruction from Computed Tomography Image Sequences Exhibiting Multiple Fractures},

booktitle = {Proc. of the Thirteenth IEEE Int. Conf. on Image Processing (ICIP},

year = {2006},

pages = {1173--1176}

}

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### Abstract

A novel procedure for in-silico (virtual) craniofacial reconstruction of human mandibles with multiple fractures from a sequence of Computed Tomography (CT) images is presented. The problem is formulated as one of combinatorial pattern matching and solved in two stages. First, the opposable fracture surfaces are identified using a maximum weight graph matching algorithm where the fracture surfaces are modeled as the vertices of a weighted graph. The edge weights between pairs of vertices are treated as elements of a score matrix, whose values are a linear combination of (a) the Hausdorff distance, and (b) a score function based on fracture surface characteristics. Second, the pairs of opposable fracture surfaces identified in the first stage are actually registered using the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm enhanced with a graph theoretic improvisation. The correctness of the registration in the second stage is constantly monitored by volumetric matching of the reconstructed mandible with an intact mandible. Experimental results on simulated CT image sequences of broken human mandibles are presented.

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Citation Context ...where p is an appropriately chosen positive fraction.s4. FRACTURE SURFACE REGISTRATION The fracture surface pairs are accurately registered using an improvised Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm =-=[12]-=- in the second step of the overall reconstruction problem. The main steps in the improvised ICP algorithm are described below [13]: (a) The matching points in one fracture surface data set, called the... |

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Citation Context ...ed the sample data set, are determined and termed the closest set. The matching point pairs are determined using the Maximum Cardinality Minimum Weight (MCMW) matching algorithm for a bipartite graph =-=[11, 14]-=-. The use of the MCMW graph matching algorithm obviates the need for any prior alignment of the two fracture surface data sets. The sample and model data sets correspond to the two disjoint vertex set... |

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Citation Context ... it does not need a prior correspondence between the two data point sets to give a measure of spatial separation between them. The Hausdorff distance H(A, B) between two data sets A and B is given by =-=[8]-=-: H ( A, B) � max( h( A, B), h( B, A)) (1) 1424404819/06/$20.00 ©2006 IEEE 1173 ICIP 2006swhere h(A, B) denotes the directed Hausdorff distance between the two data sets A and B defined by h( A, B)... |

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Citation Context ...e optimal solution to the TSP entails a factorial-time algorithm in the worst case. Instead, we model the reconstruction problem as a Maximum Weight Graph Matching (MWGM) problem for a weighted graph =-=[11]-=-, where the fracture surfaces are modeled as the vertices of a weighted graph G and the entries of the score matrix are assigned the edge weights between the corresponding vertices. The MWGM algorithm... |

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Citation Context ...e irregularity is guided by the fact that it enjoys rotational and translational invariance. The contour curvature for a point (x, y) in a given CT image slice (for a specific value of z) is given by =-=[9]-=-: 2 d y dy 2 3 / 2 c( x, y) � ( 1� ( ) ) (3) 2 dx dx A score function FS(A, B) for a pair of fracture surfaces A and B is the sum of the score fs(a, b) for each possible point pair, one from each surf... |

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Citation Context ...d using a measure of volumetric overlap with the unbroken reference mandible. In the context of volumetric matching, the Tanimoto coefficient TCf,g between two volumetric shapes f and g is defined as =-=[15]-=-: O f , g TC f , g � (16) I f � I g � O f , g 2 where I f � ��� f ( xˆ , yˆ , zˆ ) dv (17) I g � ��� g x y z ) dv ~ 2 ( ~ , ~ , (18) O f g � ��� f x y z g x y z ) dv ~ ~ , ~ , 2 ( ˆ, ˆ, ˆ) ( , (19) He... |

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Citation Context ... CT image slices. In the case of 2D problems, the score matrix formulation is typically based on curve matching [4], where the matrix elements denote matches between potentially opposable edge points =-=[7]-=-. In our case, we need to estimate the matching score between the 3D fracture surfaces extracted from the CT image slices. A high matching score is assigned to a pair of fracture surfaces if (a) they ... |

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Citation Context ...ry, Pattern matching. 1. INTRODUCTION Craniofacial fractures are very frequently encountered in modern society with the major causes being vehicle accidents, sportsrelated injuries and gunshot wounds =-=[1]-=-. The issue of virtual surgical reconstruction is critical even in a single-fracture instance as the surgeon needs to precisely, and in an expeditious manner, register the two bone fragments, thereby ... |

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Citation Context ...s to precisely, and in an expeditious manner, register the two bone fragments, thereby preventing any possible misalignment between them. The problem is far more complex in case of multiple fractures =-=[2]-=- and the cost of surgery becomes prohibitive with the increased operative time necessary to identify accurately the opposable fracture surfaces and thereby ensure an overall accurate reconstruction [3... |

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Citation Context ...n [3]. The reconstruction problem is essentially combinatorial in nature and hence is a topic of general interest in other problems such as jigsaw puzzle solving [4-5] and broken earthenware assembly =-=[6]-=-. The present paper provides a novel two step solution to the virtual multi-fracture reconstruction problem, which can be easily extended to similar problems in other domains. In the first step, the o... |

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Citation Context ...egistered using an improvised Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm [12] in the second step of the overall reconstruction problem. The main steps in the improvised ICP algorithm are described below =-=[13]-=-: (a) The matching points in one fracture surface data set, called the model data set, corresponding to points in the other fracture surface data set, called the sample data set, are determined and te... |

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Citation Context ...2] and the cost of surgery becomes prohibitive with the increased operative time necessary to identify accurately the opposable fracture surfaces and thereby ensure an overall accurate reconstruction =-=[3]-=-. The reconstruction problem is essentially combinatorial in nature and hence is a topic of general interest in other problems such as jigsaw puzzle solving [4-5] and broken earthenware assembly [6]. ... |

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Citation Context ...obtained by extracting and collating the corresponding fracture contour points in the 2D CT image slices. In the case of 2D problems, the score matrix formulation is typically based on curve matching =-=[4]-=-, where the matrix elements denote matches between potentially opposable edge points [7]. In our case, we need to estimate the matching score between the 3D fracture surfaces extracted from the CT ima... |