## Impact of channel prediction on adaptive coded modulation performance in Rayleigh fading (2004)

Venue: | IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology |

Citations: | 18 - 3 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Øien04impactof,

author = {Geir Egil Øien and Henrik Holm and Kjell Jørgen Hole},

title = {Impact of channel prediction on adaptive coded modulation performance in Rayleigh fading},

journal = {IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology},

year = {2004},

volume = {53},

pages = {758--769}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Adaptive coded modulation (ACM) is a promising tool for increasing the spectral efficiency on time-varying mobile channels while keeping a predictable bit error rate. An important restriction in systems with such a transmission scheme is that the transmitter needs to have accurate channel state information (CSI). Earlier analysis of ACM systems usually assume that the transmitter has perfect knowledge of the channel, or that the CSI is accurate but outdated. In this paper, we investigate the effects of predicting the CSI using a linear fading envelope predictor, in order to enhance the performance of an ACM system. For the case when multidimensional trellis codes are used on Rayleigh fading channels, we obtain approximative closed-form expressions for bit error rate and average spectral efficiency. Numerical examples are given for the case of Jakes correlation profile and maximum a posteriori-optimal predictor coefficients.

### Citations

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Citation Context ...his paper, is a special case of NMF. One way of coping with the varying channel quality resulting from NMF in general and Rayleigh fading in particular is by employing adaptive coded modulation (ACM) =-=[2]-=-–[5]. An important restriction in ACM systems is that the transmitter needs to have accurate channel state information (CSI). Earlier analysis of ACM systems usually assume that the transmitter has pe... |

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Citation Context ...Channel Estimation, (4) Antenna Diversity I. INTRODUCTION Wireless radio communication is frequently perturbed by multipath fading. A flexible model for such fading is Nakagami multipath fading (NMF) =-=[1]-=-. The much-used Rayleigh fading model, which will be assumed throughout this paper, is a special case of NMF. One way of coping with the varying channel quality resulting from NMF in general and Rayle... |

78 | Adaptive modulation over Nakagami fading channels
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Citation Context ... BER (averaged over all codes and all CSNRs) is given as the average number of bits in error, divided by the average number of bits per symbol transmitted, i.e., the average spectral efficiency (ASE) =-=[3]-=-, [16]: BER = � N n=1 Rn · BERn �N n=1 RnPn , (10) where Rn is the information rate of code n, Pn is the probability that code n will be used, and BERn is the average BER experienced when code n is us... |

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Citation Context ...f a band-limited process. The Doppler spectrum is typically band-limited to fD [9, Ch. 2]; thus the pilot symbols should be transmitted at a rate of at least 2 · fD, according to the sampling theorem =-=[22]-=-. Hence, L ≤ 1/(2fDTs), and any L ≤ 1000 would yield adequate sampling when the Doppler spread is fDTs = 5·10 −4 . However, note that this is only valid when the pilot symbols are not corrupted by noi... |

37 | Adaptive multidimensional coded modulation over flat fading channels
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Citation Context ...paper, is a special case of NMF. One way of coping with the varying channel quality resulting from NMF in general and Rayleigh fading in particular is by employing adaptive coded modulation (ACM) [2]–=-=[5]-=-. An important restriction in ACM systems is that the transmitter needs to have accurate channel state information (CSI). Earlier analysis of ACM systems usually assume that the transmitter has perfec... |

34 | Effect of channel estimation error on M-QAM BER performance in Rayleigh fading
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Citation Context ... of an ACM system. 1 To improve the reliability of signal detection, pilot symbols can be inserted regularly into the data stream. This technique is called pilot symbol assisted modulation (PSAM) [6]–=-=[8]-=-. PSAM is also well suited for channel estimation in an ACM system. The requirements of the estimation technique are then slightly different from the signal detection case. Specifically, a channel pre... |

27 |
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Citation Context ... designer-chosen constant. Since we are dealing with complex Gaussian processes, the optimal fading envelope predictor in the MAP (and ML) sense is known to be a linear function of these observations =-=[15]-=-. We therefore restrict our study to linear prediction from now on. Allowing for complex predictor filter coefficients, any linear predictor of order K can be written on the form ˆzh(i + j) = K−1 � k=... |

18 | Adaptive Wireless Transceivers: Turbo-coded Turbo-Equalized and Space-Time - Hanzo, Wong, et al. - 2002 |

15 | Adaptive PSAM accounting for channel estimation and prediction errors
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Citation Context ... fixed power, and equal pilot symbol and information symbol power. It has not been claimed here that this is optimal; indeed, for uncoded adaptive modulation it has recently been shown that it is not =-=[26]-=-. More power to the pilot symbols yields a better estimate, whereas less pilot symbol power would leave more to the actual transmission of data. A system where the pilot symbol power is adapted to the... |

13 |
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Citation Context ... kept constant at K = 1000 in Fig. 6. The effect of increasing the filter order while keeping L constant is shown in Fig. 7. Several authors have viewed the fading as an auto-regressive process [23], =-=[24]-=-, which may explain the minute advantage of increasing K compared to the improvement resulting from decreasing L shown in Fig. 6. To sum up, our choice of predictor order K = 1000 in subsequent experi... |

13 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ean a smaller ASE, but a higher tolerance against feedback delay and noise. Analytically based approaches for performing such an increase are suggested in [26] for uncoded adaptive modulation, and in =-=[27]-=- for a similar ACM framework as that considered in this paper. One avenue for future research is to combine the analytical framework in this paper with these approaches, to explore the possible trade-... |

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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...implemented in the receiver. The overall received CSNR at time k will then be [9, Sec. 6.3]: γ(k) = H� γh(k). (2) h=1 On a Rayleigh fading channel, γh(k) is exponentially distributed. It can be shown =-=[11]-=- that γ(k) after MRC is gamma-distributed with a shape parameter H and expectation H¯γh. In practice, this means that the overall channel with MRC behaves like an NMF channel with Nakagami parameter m... |

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Citation Context ...t K is kept constant at K = 1000 in Fig. 6. The effect of increasing the filter order while keeping L constant is shown in Fig. 7. Several authors have viewed the fading as an auto-regressive process =-=[23]-=-, [24], which may explain the minute advantage of increasing K compared to the improvement resulting from decreasing L shown in Fig. 6. To sum up, our choice of predictor order K = 1000 in subsequent ... |

5 |
Channel prediction for adaptive coded modulation in Rayleigh fading
- Øien, Holm, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ible linear predictor (in an mean-square error sense), for any predictor order. The trade-off between complexity and optimality in a practical system is a subject for further research. It is shown in =-=[21]-=- and [11] that the MAP-optimal prediction filter coefficient vector for the complex fading amplitude on a Rayleigh channel can be expressed as follows: f T j,MAP = r T � j R + 1 �−1 I . (24) ¯γh Remem... |

2 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...assuming that a certain receiver delay is acceptable, such as in data transmission)—cf. Fig. 1. CSI estimation can then be accomplished using an optimal non-causal Wiener interpolator filter [6]–[8], =-=[13]-=-, which will smooth the noise and improve CSI reliability beyond what can be achieved by a predictor, and allow for true coherent detection to be used. We therefore assume perfect coherent detection i... |

2 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ewed as dependent on ˆγ in the expressions to follow. Furthermore, fγ,ˆγ(γ, ˆγ) is the joint distribution of the actual and the predicted CSNR. In our case this will be a bivariate gamma distribution =-=[18]-=-. This is because γ and ˆγ are both individually gamma distributed (cf. Section IIIA) and mutually correlated (cf. Section III-B). The reader is referred to Tang et al. [8] for more details. Definitio... |

2 |
Bit error rate analysis of adaptive coded modulation with mismatched and complexity-limited channel prediction
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...actical predictors will always result in a performance deterioration compared to these results. Some more experimental results illustrating the effects of reducing the predictor order are provided in =-=[25]-=-. VI. EXAMPLE SYSTEM In order to assess bounds for the performance of a system incorporating antenna diversity and channel prediction, a specific system similar to the one in [5] is investigated. The ... |

1 |
Øien, “Performance analysis of adaptive coded modulation with antenna diversity and feedback delay,” Telektronikk – Information Theory and its
- Hole, Holm, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nctions of the normalized correlation coefficient ρ between the predicted and the true CSNR, i.e., ρ = Cov(ˆγ, γ) � = Var(ˆγ) Var(γ) E[ˆα2 α2 ] − H2Ω2r HΩ2 . (8) r Additionally, it can be shown [11], =-=[16]-=- that the overall correlation coefficient is the same as the correlation coefficient for the channel between the transmitter and any of the H receive antennas. It follows that ρ may be expressed as A.... |

1 | He received the M.Sc. degree and the Ph.D. degree, both from the Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH - Papoulis - 1991 |