## Entity Resolution with Markov Logic (2006)

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Venue: | In ICDM |

Citations: | 79 - 9 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Singla06entityresolution,

author = {Parag Singla and Pedro Domingos},

title = {Entity Resolution with Markov Logic},

booktitle = {In ICDM},

year = {2006},

pages = {572--582},

publisher = {IEEE Computer Society Press}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

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### Abstract

Entity resolution is the problem of determining which records in a database refer to the same entities, and is a crucial and expensive step in the data mining process. Interest in it has grown rapidly in recent years, and many approaches have been proposed. However, they tend to address only isolated aspects of the problem, and are often ad hoc. This paper proposes a well-founded, integrated solution to the entity resolution problem based on Markov logic. Markov logic combines first-order logic and probabilistic graphical models by attaching weights to first-order formulas, and viewing them as templates for features of Markov networks. We show how a number of previous approaches can be formulated and seamlessly combined in Markov logic, and how the resulting learning and inference problems can be solved efficiently. Experiments on two citation databases show the utility of this approach, and evaluate the contribution of the different components. 1

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Citation Context ...ng the quadratic number of comparisons between all pairs of entities (e.g., [20, 30, 26, 7]). Another has focused on the use of active learning techniques to minimize the need for labeled data (e.g., =-=[44, 38, 4]-=-). Several authors have devised, compared and learned similarity measures for use in entity resolution (e.g., [6, 45, 3]). A number of alternate formulations have also been proposed (e.g., [5]). Entit... |

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Citation Context ...learning and inference, it also offers the opportunity to improve entity resolution, by taking into account information that was previously ignored. For example, Singla and Domingos [42], Dong et al. =-=[12]-=- and Culotta and McCallum [9] allow the resolution of entities of one type to be helped by resolution of entities of related types (e.g., if two papers are the same, their authors are the same, which ... |

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Citation Context ...of related types (e.g., if two papers are the same, their authors are the same, which in turn is evidence that other pairs of papers by the same authors should be matched, etc.). McCallum and Wellner =-=[28]-=- incorporate the transitive closure step into the statistical model. Pasula et al. [34] incorporate parsing of entities from citation lists into a citation matchingsmodel. Bhattacharya and Getoor [2] ... |

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Citation Context ...use of active learning techniques to minimize the need for labeled data (e.g., [44, 38, 4]). Several authors have devised, compared and learned similarity measures for use in entity resolution (e.g., =-=[6, 45, 3]-=-). A number of alternate formulations have also been proposed (e.g., [5]). Entity resolution has been applied in a wide variety of domains (e.g., [33, 10]) and to different types of data, including te... |

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Citation Context ...erence and voted perceptron learning are efficient enough to be practical for domains of realistic size. These algorithms are publicly available in the Alchemy system, which we use in our experiments =-=[24]-=-. 1 If the closed world assumption is not made, the truth values of some atoms are unknown, and weights can be learned using a form of the EM algorithm. 4 5 Entity Resolution 5.1 Equality in Markov Lo... |

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Citation Context ...nd the MAP state, Singla and Domingos [41] generalized it to MLNs by replacing Viterbi with MaxWalkSAT. It is also possible to learn the structure of MLNs using inductive logic programming techniques =-=[23]-=-. Learning can start from an empty network, or from an initial knowledge base. Markov logic affords us the expressiveness of first-order logic while avoiding its brittleness, and makes it easy to inco... |

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Citation Context ...use of active learning techniques to minimize the need for labeled data (e.g., [44, 38, 4]). Several authors have devised, compared and learned similarity measures for use in entity resolution (e.g., =-=[6, 45, 3]-=-). A number of alternate formulations have also been proposed (e.g., [5]). Entity resolution has been applied in a wide variety of domains (e.g., [33, 10]) and to different types of data, including te... |

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Citation Context ...Markov logic, which combines first-order logic and Markov random fields [36], with weighted satisfiability testing for efficient inference and a voted perceptron algorithm for discriminative learning =-=[41]-=-. Our formulation makes it practical to combine many different components into a comprehensive solution to the entity resolution problem. We illustrate this in this paper by combining a few salient on... |

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Citation Context ...[28] incorporate the transitive closure step into the statistical model. Pasula et al. [34] incorporate parsing of entities from citation lists into a citation matchingsmodel. Bhattacharya and Getoor =-=[2]-=- use coauthorship relations to help match authors in citation databases. Milch et al [29] propose a language for reasoning about entity resolution. Shen et al. [40] exploit various types of constraint... |

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Citation Context ...[44, 38, 4]). Several authors have devised, compared and learned similarity measures for use in entity resolution (e.g., [6, 45, 3]). A number of alternate formulations have also been proposed (e.g., =-=[5]-=-). Entity resolution has been applied in a wide variety of domains (e.g., [33, 10]) and to different types of data, including text (e.g., [25]) and images (e.g., [21]). Winkler [46] surveys research i... |

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Citation Context ...iant of satisfiability where each clause has an associated weight, and the goal is to maximize the sum of the weights of satisfied clauses. MaxWalkSAT is a direct extension of WalkSAT to this problem =-=[22]-=-. 4 Markov Logic A first-order KB can be seen as a set of hard constraints on the set of possible worlds: if a world violates even one formula, it has zero probability. The basic idea in Markov logic ... |

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Citation Context ...r of alternate formulations have also been proposed (e.g., [5]). Entity resolution has been applied in a wide variety of domains (e.g., [33, 10]) and to different types of data, including text (e.g., =-=[25]-=-) and images (e.g., [21]). Winkler [46] surveys research in traditional record linkage. Most recently, several authors have pointed out that match decisions should not be made independently for each c... |

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Citation Context ...ons have also been proposed (e.g., [5]). Entity resolution has been applied in a wide variety of domains (e.g., [33, 10]) and to different types of data, including text (e.g., [25]) and images (e.g., =-=[21]-=-). Winkler [46] surveys research in traditional record linkage. Most recently, several authors have pointed out that match decisions should not be made independently for each candidate pair. While the... |

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Citation Context ...dency complicates learning and inference, it also offers the opportunity to improve entity resolution, by taking into account information that was previously ignored. For example, Singla and Domingos =-=[42]-=-, Dong et al. [12] and Culotta and McCallum [9] allow the resolution of entities of one type to be helped by resolution of entities of related types (e.g., if two papers are the same, their authors ar... |

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Citation Context ...ng the quadratic number of comparisons between all pairs of entities (e.g., [20, 30, 26, 7]). Another has focused on the use of active learning techniques to minimize the need for labeled data (e.g., =-=[44, 38, 4]-=-). Several authors have devised, compared and learned similarity measures for use in entity resolution (e.g., [6, 45, 3]). A number of alternate formulations have also been proposed (e.g., [5]). Entit... |

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Citation Context ...chingsmodel. Bhattacharya and Getoor [2] use coauthorship relations to help match authors in citation databases. Milch et al [29] propose a language for reasoning about entity resolution. Shen et al. =-=[40]-=- exploit various types of constraints to improve matching accuracy. Davis et al. [10] use inductive logic programming techniques to discover relational rules for entity resolution, which they then com... |

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Citation Context ...t lazily grounds predicates and clauses, effectively allowing predicates that are initially assumed false to be revisited, without incurring the computational cost of completely grounding the network =-=[43]-=-. Incorporating this into our entity resolution system is an item for future work. 6 Experiments 6.1 Datasets We used two publicly available citation databases in our experiments: Cora and BibServ. 6.... |

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Citation Context ...words. Since these are often a significant issue in entity resolution, it would be desirable to account for them. One way to do this efficiently is to compare word strings by the engrams they contain =-=[19]-=-. This can be done in our framework by defining the predicate HasEngram(word, engram), which is true iff engram is a substring of word. (This predicate can be computed on the fly from its arguments, o... |

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Citation Context ...o offers the opportunity to improve entity resolution, by taking into account information that was previously ignored. For example, Singla and Domingos [42], Dong et al. [12] and Culotta and McCallum =-=[9]-=- allow the resolution of entities of one type to be helped by resolution of entities of related types (e.g., if two papers are the same, their authors are the same, which in turn is evidence that othe... |

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Citation Context ...easures for use in entity resolution (e.g., [6, 45, 3]). A number of alternate formulations have also been proposed (e.g., [5]). Entity resolution has been applied in a wide variety of domains (e.g., =-=[33, 10]-=-) and to different types of data, including text (e.g., [25]) and images (e.g., [21]). Winkler [46] surveys research in traditional record linkage. Most recently, several authors have pointed out that... |

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Citation Context ...easures for use in entity resolution (e.g., [6, 45, 3]). A number of alternate formulations have also been proposed (e.g., [5]). Entity resolution has been applied in a wide variety of domains (e.g., =-=[33, 10]-=-) and to different types of data, including text (e.g., [25]) and images (e.g., [21]). Winkler [46] surveys research in traditional record linkage. Most recently, several authors have pointed out that... |