## A gentle introduction to memetic algorithms (2003)

Venue: | Handbook of Metaheuristics |

Citations: | 49 - 10 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Moscato03agentle,

author = {Pablo Moscato},

title = {A gentle introduction to memetic algorithms},

booktitle = {Handbook of Metaheuristics},

year = {2003},

pages = {105--144},

publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

### Citations

2392 | The evolution of cooperation
- Axelrod, Hamilton
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oblem the Min Euclidean Traveling Salesman problem (Min ETSP). According to the authors, the original inspiration came from computer game tournaments [96] used to study “the evolution of cooperation” =-=[6]-=- (see also [171] and [164] for more recent theoretical results in this field). That approach had several features which anticipated many current algorithms in practice today. The competitive phase of ... |

1513 |
Reducibility among combinatorial problems
- Karp
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sman Problem [73] [75] [156] [189] [67] [66] [76] [138] [110] [97] [142]. Regarding the theory of N P-Completeness, most of them can be cited as “classical” as they appeared in Karp’s notorious paper =-=[108]-=- on the reducibility of combinatorial problems. Remark12sably, in most of them the authors claim that they have developed the best heuristic for the problem at hand. This is important since these prob... |

1369 |
The selfish gene
- Dawkins
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...oblem domain knowledge is not an optional mechanism, but a fundamental feature that characterizes MAs. This functioning philosophy is perfectly illustrated by the term “memetic”. Coined by R. Dawkins =-=[52]-=-, the word ‘meme’ denotes an analogous to the gene in the context of cultural evolution [154]. In Dawkins’ words: “Examples of memes are tunes, ideas, catch-phrases, clothes fashions, ways of making p... |

1356 |
Combinatorial optimization: Algorithm and complexity
- Papadimitriu, Steiglitz
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...heuristics do best, reducing the computational effort by radically changing the search space, so certainly there is no paradox here. Most heuristics, however, have a “positive bias”. For instance, in =-=[181]-=- we can read: “The strategy developed by Lin [126] for the TSP is to obtain several local optima and then identify edges that are common to all of them. These are then fixed, thus reducing the time to... |

1314 | Handbook of Genetic Algorithms
- DAVIS
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... Given that the term hybridization [42] is commonly used to denote the process of incorporating problem knowledge, it is not surprising that MAs are sometimes called ‘Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithms’ =-=[51]-=- as well. One of the first algorithms to which the MA label was assigned dates from 1988 [169], and was regarded by many as a hybrid of traditional Genetic Algorithms (GAs) and Simulated Annealing (SA... |

941 |
Evolutionary Algorithms in Theory and Practice
- Bäck
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., the stronger the pressure). Otherwise, the search would reduce to a random wandering through S. There are a number of studies regarding appropriate choices for the UpdatePopulation procedure (e.g., =-=[9]-=- [78]). As a general guideline, the comma strategy is usually regarded as less prone to stagnation, being the ratio |newpop|/posize � 6 a common choice [8]. Nevertheless, this option can be somewhat c... |

712 |
Evolutionsstrategie: Optimierung technischer Systeme nach Prinzipien der biologischen Evolution. Frommann--Holzboog
- Rechenberg
- 1973
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... UpdatePopulation procedure is used to reconstruct the current population using the old population pop and the newly generated population newpop. Borrowing the terminology from the evolution strategy =-=[194, 202]-=- community, there exist two main possibilities to carry on this reconstruction: the plus strategy and the comma strategy. In the former, the current population is constructed taken the best popsize co... |

708 | No free lunch theorems for optimization
- Wolpert, Macready
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l and distinctive feature of MAs, the inclusion of problem knowledge mentioned above, is also supported by strong theoretical results. As Hart and Belew [88] initially stated and Wolpert and Macready =-=[224]-=- later popularized in the so-called No-Free-Lunch Theorem, a search algorithm strictly performs in accordance with the amount and quality of the problem knowledge they incorporate. This fact clearly u... |

558 |
Uniform Crossover in Genetic Algorithms
- Syswerda
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the fitness values of configurations y ∈ Spar (so as to bias the generation of descendants to the best parents). A typical example of a blind recombination operator is the classical Uniform crossover =-=[209]-=-. This operator is defined on search spaces S ≡ Σ n , i.e., strings of n symbols taken from an alphabet Σ. The construction of the descendant is done by randomly selecting at each position one of the ... |

353 |
An effective heuristic algorithm for the traveling salesman problem
- Lin, Kernighan
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...TSP is to obtain several local optima and then identify edges that are common to all of them. These are then fixed, thus reducing the time to find more local optima. This idea is developed further in =-=[127]-=- and [72].” Curiously enough, although this strategy has been around for more than three decades it is hardly accepted by some researchers regardless all empirical evidence of the benefits of MAs that... |

321 | Evolution of indirect reciprocity by image scoring
- Nowak, Sigmund
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Euclidean Traveling Salesman problem (Min ETSP). According to the authors, the original inspiration came from computer game tournaments [96] used to study “the evolution of cooperation” [6] (see also =-=[171]-=- and [164] for more recent theoretical results in this field). That approach had several features which anticipated many current algorithms in practice today. The competitive phase of the algorithm wa... |

290 |
Elements of the theory of computation
- Lewis, Papadimitriou
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...emented. Some theoretical computer science researchers dismiss heuristics and metaheuristics since they are not coordinated as a formal paradigm. However, their achievements are well-recognized. From =-=[121]-=-: “Explaining and predicting the impressive empirical success of some of these algorithms is one of the most challenging frontiers of the theory of computation today.” This comment is even more releva... |

288 |
The traveling salesman problem: A case study
- Johnson, McGeoch
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n state-of-the-art techniques from a wide variety of scientific fields. The philosophy is the same of MAs, that of a synergy of different approaches. However, due to a comment by Johnson and McGeoch (=-=[103]-=-, page 301), we previously suggested that the connection with MAs might be stronger since there is an analogy with multi-parent recombination. In a recent unpublished manuscript, “Finding Tours in the... |

279 |
Computer solutions of the traveling salesman problem
- Lin
- 1965
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ort by radically changing the search space, so certainly there is no paradox here. Most heuristics, however, have a “positive bias”. For instance, in [181] we can read: “The strategy developed by Lin =-=[126]-=- for the TSP is to obtain several local optima and then identify edges that are common to all of them. These are then fixed, thus reducing the time to find more local optima. This idea is developed fu... |

228 |
Genetic Algorithms and Engineering Design
- Gen, Cheng
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s ?” 4.4 Addition of negative knowledge During the past five years, the addition of problem-dependent knowledge to enhance populationbased approaches received a renewed interest among MAs researchers =-=[189, 2, 70, 82, 12, 19, 204]-=-. Earlier papers had emphasized the relevance [79, 125, 207, 154] of this issue, as well as Lawrence Davis from his numerous writings, also supported this idea when there was still not such a consensu... |

221 | Development and validation of a genetic algorithm for flexible docking
- Jones, Willett, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...8. In recent years, several papers applied hybrids of GAs with SA or other methods to a variety of molecular optimization problems [178] [230] [204] [203] [129] [10] [54] [221] [107] [123] [82] [117] =-=[105]-=- [231] [49] [147] [59] [136] [131] [211] [68]. Hybrid population approaches like this can hardly be catalogued as being ‘genetic’, but this denomination has appeared in previous work by Deaven and Ho ... |

201 | How Easy is Local Search
- Johnson, Papadimitriou, et al.
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s have tried to provide a more theoretically-solid background to this class of search. In this line, it is worth mentioning the definition of the Polynomial Local Search class (PLS) by Johnson et al. =-=[104]-=-. Basically, this complexity class comprises a problem and an associated search landscape such that we can decide in polynomial time if we can find a better solution in the neighborhood. Unfortunately... |

173 |
Evolutionary Algorithms, Fitness Landscapes and Search
- Jones
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ies to this problem abound, including resorting to multi-objective techniques. The combination of a certain problem instance and the three entities defined above induces a so-called fitness landscape =-=[106]-=-. Essentially, a fitness landscape can be defined as a weighted digraph, in which the vertices are configurations of the search space S, and the arcs connect neighboring configurations. The weights ar... |

173 | A review of evolutionary artificial neural networks
- Yao
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... related to machine learning (for example, the training of artificial neural networks), and in robotic applications. With respect to the former, MAs have been applied to neural network training [155] =-=[227]-=- [212] [100], pattern recognition [3], pattern classification [113] [145], and analysis of time series [173]. As to the application of MAs to robotics, work has been done in reactive rulebase learning... |

155 | Vertex cover: Further Observations and Further
- Chen, Kanj, et al.
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ral, efficient FPT algorithms are based on the techniques of reduction to a problem kernel and bounded search trees. To understand the techniques, the reader may check a method by Chen, Kanj, and Yia =-=[32]-=-. This method can solve the parameterized version of vertex cover in time O(1.271 k k 2 + kn). However, using this method together with the speed-up method proposed by Neidermeier and Rossmanith [166]... |

138 | A genetic algorithm for the set covering problem
- Beasley, Chu
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he following: Graph Partitioning [18] [19] [139] [142] [143], Min Number Partitioning [14], Max Independent Set [2] [90] [200], Bin-Packing [195], Min Graph Coloring [41] [64] [60] [39], Set Covering =-=[11]-=-, Single Machine Scheduling with setup-times and due-dates [119] [65] [146], Parallel Machine Scheduling [33] [35] [148] [135], Min Generalised Assignment [36], Multidimensional Knapsack [45] [12] [77... |

120 |
Incorporating problem specific knowledge into genetic algorithms
- Grefenstette
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ition of problem-dependent knowledge to enhance populationbased approaches received a renewed interest among MAs researchers [189, 2, 70, 82, 12, 19, 204]. Earlier papers had emphasized the relevance =-=[79, 125, 207, 154]-=- of this issue, as well as Lawrence Davis from his numerous writings, also supported this idea when there was still not such a consensus, and many researchers were skeptical about their central role. ... |

117 |
ASPARAGOS An Asynchronous Parallel Genetic Optimization Strategy
- Gorges-Schleuter
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...reatment. Less than a year later, in 1989, Moscato and Norman identified several authors who were also pioneering the introduction of heuristics to improve the solutions before recombining them [158] =-=[73]-=- (see other references and the discussion in [154]). Particularly coming from the GA field, several authors were introducing problem-domain knowledge in a variety of ways. In [154] the denomination of... |

110 | Evolution in Time and Space – The Parallel Genetic Algorithm
- Mühlenbein
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...th an appropriate set of rules, had for the overall performance of population search processes. A few months later, Moscato and Norman discovered that they shared similar views with other researchers =-=[157]-=- [74] and other authors proposing “island models” for GAs. Spacialization is now being recognized as the “catalyzer” responsible of a variety of phenomena [164] [163]. This is an important research is... |

107 |
A genetic algorithm for the multidimensional knapsack problem
- Chu, Beasley
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ing [11], Single Machine Scheduling with setup-times and due-dates [119] [65] [146], Parallel Machine Scheduling [33] [35] [148] [135], Min Generalised Assignment [36], Multidimensional Knapsack [45] =-=[12]-=- [77], Nonlinear Integer Programming [210] Quadratic Assignment [17] [29] [137] [142] [141], Set Partitioning [120], and particularly on the Min Travelling Salesman Problem [73] [75] [156] [189] [67] ... |

98 | Genetic algorithms for tracking changing environments
- Cobb, Grefenstette
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ne (i); InsertInPopulation individual i to newpop; endparfor; return newpop end Figure 5: The RestartPopulation procedure. The procedure shown in Fig. 5 is also known as the random-immigrant strategy =-=[38]-=-. A different possibility is activating a strong or heavy mutation operator in order to drive the population away from its current location in the search space. Both options have their advantages and ... |

95 |
Genetic and hybrid algorithms for graph coloring
- Fleurent, Fefland
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o N P−hard problems such as the following: Graph Partitioning [18] [19] [139] [142] [143], Min Number Partitioning [14], Max Independent Set [2] [90] [200], Bin-Packing [195], Min Graph Coloring [41] =-=[64]-=- [60] [39], Set Covering [11], Single Machine Scheduling with setup-times and due-dates [119] [65] [146], Parallel Machine Scheduling [33] [35] [148] [135], Min Generalised Assignment [36], Multidimen... |

92 |
Evolution algorithms in combinatorial optimization, Parallel Computing 7
- Muhlenbein, Gorges-Schleuter, et al.
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rmal treatment. Less than a year later, in 1989, Moscato and Norman identified several authors who were also pioneering the introduction of heuristics to improve the solutions before recombining them =-=[158]-=- [73] (see other references and the discussion in [154]). Particularly coming from the GA field, several authors were introducing problem-domain knowledge in a variety of ways. In [154] the denominati... |

90 |
Genetic Algorithm and Graph Partitioning
- Bui, Moon
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... one of the most typical battlefields of MAs. A remarkable history of successes has been reported with respect to the application of MAs to N P−hard problems such as the following: Graph Partitioning =-=[18]-=- [19] [139] [142] [143], Min Number Partitioning [14], Max Independent Set [2] [90] [200], Bin-Packing [195], Min Graph Coloring [41] [64] [60] [39], Set Covering [11], Single Machine Scheduling with ... |

89 | A Memetic Algorithm for University Exam Timetabling
- Burke, Newall, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., flowshop scheduling [159] [160] [30], project scheduling [168] [191] [177], warehouse scheduling [216], production planning [57] [149], timetabling [128] [20] [179] [192] [151] [152] [21] [22] [24] =-=[23]-=- [180], rostering [153] [53], and sport games scheduling [40]. Obviously, this list is by no means complete since its purpose is simply to document the wide applicability of the approach for combinato... |

79 | Genetic local search algorithms for solving symmetric and asyimmetric traveling salesman problems
- Freisleben, Merz
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... [77], Nonlinear Integer Programming [210] Quadratic Assignment [17] [29] [137] [142] [141], Set Partitioning [120], and particularly on the Min Travelling Salesman Problem [73] [75] [156] [189] [67] =-=[66]-=- [76] [138] [110] [97] [142]. Regarding the theory of N P-Completeness, most of them can be cited as “classical” as they appeared in Karp’s notorious paper [108] on the reducibility of combinatorial p... |

79 | Genetic local search for the tsp: New results
- Merz, Freisleben
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...linear Integer Programming [210] Quadratic Assignment [17] [29] [137] [142] [141], Set Partitioning [120], and particularly on the Min Travelling Salesman Problem [73] [75] [156] [189] [67] [66] [76] =-=[138]-=- [110] [97] [142]. Regarding the theory of N P-Completeness, most of them can be cited as “classical” as they appeared in Karp’s notorious paper [108] on the reducibility of combinatorial problems. Re... |

70 | The algebra of genetic algorithms
- Radcliffe
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the patching-by-forma-completion operators proposed by Radcliffe and Surry [188]. These operators are based on generating an incomplete child using a non-heuristic procedure (e.g., the RARω operator =-=[187]-=-), and then completing the child either using a local hill climbing procedure restricted to non-specified features (locally optimal forma completion) or a global search procedure that finds the global... |

69 | A Parallel Genetic Algorithm for the Set Partitioning Problem
- Levine
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...33] [35] [148] [135], Min Generalised Assignment [36], Multidimensional Knapsack [45] [12] [77], Nonlinear Integer Programming [210] Quadratic Assignment [17] [29] [137] [142] [141], Set Partitioning =-=[120]-=-, and particularly on the Min Travelling Salesman Problem [73] [75] [156] [189] [67] [66] [76] [138] [110] [97] [142]. Regarding the theory of N P-Completeness, most of them can be cited as “classical... |

64 | A “memetic” approach for the traveling salesman problem. Implementation of a computational ecology for combinatorial optimization on message-passing systems
- Moscato, Norman
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...napsack [45] [12] [77], Nonlinear Integer Programming [210] Quadratic Assignment [17] [29] [137] [142] [141], Set Partitioning [120], and particularly on the Min Travelling Salesman Problem [73] [75] =-=[156]-=- [189] [67] [66] [76] [138] [110] [97] [142]. Regarding the theory of N P-Completeness, most of them can be cited as “classical” as they appeared in Karp’s notorious paper [108] on the reducibility of... |

64 | Fitness variance of formae and performance prediction
- Radcliffe, Surry
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... parent. Examples of heuristic recombination operators concentrating on the selection of non-parental features, one can cite the patching-by-forma-completion operators proposed by Radcliffe and Surry =-=[188]-=-. These operators are based on generating an incomplete child using a non-heuristic procedure (e.g., the RARω operator [187]), and then completing the child either using a local hill climbing procedur... |

63 | Genetic K-means algorithm
- Krishna, Murty
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...al neural networks), and in robotic applications. With respect to the former, MAs have been applied to neural network training [155] [227] [212] [100], pattern recognition [3], pattern classification =-=[113]-=- [145], and analysis of time series [173]. As to the application of MAs to robotics, work has been done in reactive rulebase learning in mobile agents [47], path planning [172] [225] [183], manipulato... |

63 | Fitness landscapes and memetic algorithm design
- Merz, Freisleben
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... typical battlefields of MAs. A remarkable history of successes has been reported with respect to the application of MAs to N P−hard problems such as the following: Graph Partitioning [18] [19] [139] =-=[142]-=- [143], Min Number Partitioning [14], Max Independent Set [2] [90] [200], Bin-Packing [195], Min Graph Coloring [41] [64] [60] [39], Set Covering [11], Single Machine Scheduling with setup-times and d... |

56 | New genetic local search operators for the traveling, salesman problem
- Freisleben, Merz
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... [12] [77], Nonlinear Integer Programming [210] Quadratic Assignment [17] [29] [137] [142] [141], Set Partitioning [120], and particularly on the Min Travelling Salesman Problem [73] [75] [156] [189] =-=[67]-=- [66] [76] [138] [110] [97] [142]. Regarding the theory of N P-Completeness, most of them can be cited as “classical” as they appeared in Karp’s notorious paper [108] on the reducibility of combinator... |

56 |
Edge assembly crossover: a high-power genetic algorithms for the traveling salesman problem
- Nagata, Kobayashi
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...similarity of this latter approach with DOR. Finally, there exist some operators trying to exploit knowledge in both of the above aspects. A distinguished example is the Edge Assembly Crossover (EAX) =-=[162]-=-. EAX is a specialized operator for the TSP (both for symmetric and asymmetric instances) in which the construction of the child comprises two-phases: the first one involves the generation of an incom... |

55 | Adaptive evolutionary planner/navigator for mobile robot
- Xiao, Michalewicz, et al.
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rn classification [113] [145], and analysis of time series [173]. As to the application of MAs to robotics, work has been done in reactive rulebase learning in mobile agents [47], path planning [172] =-=[225]-=- [183], manipulator motion planning [197], time optimal control [31], etc. 3.4 Electronics and Engineering Electronics and engineering are also two fields in which these methods have been actively use... |

53 | Formal memetic algorithms
- Radcliffe, Surry
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nstance, in relation with MAs, Radcliffe and Surry introduced the concept of Binomial Minimal Mutation, where the number of mutations to perform is selected according to certain binomial distribution =-=[189]-=-. In the context of fitness landscapes, this is equivalent to a redefinition of the neighborhood relation, considering two configurations as neighbors when there exists a chain of transitions connecti... |

50 |
A tutorial survey of job-shop scheduling problems using genetic algorithms-I
- Cheng, Gen, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ation [1], placement problems [201] [98] [115], vehicle routing [101] [102], transportation problems [71] [170], task allocation [86], maintenance scheduling [25] [26] [27], open shop scheduling [63] =-=[34]-=- [124], flowshop scheduling [159] [160] [30], project scheduling [168] [191] [177], warehouse scheduling [216], production planning [57] [149], timetabling [128] [20] [179] [192] [151] [152] [21] [22]... |

48 | Configuration space analysis of traveling salesman problems
- Kirkpatrick, Toulouse
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...than three decades it is hardly accepted by some researchers regardless all empirical evidence of the benefits of MAs that exploit, by using recombination, the correlation of highly evolved solutions =-=[112]-=- [154] [157] [155] [15] [142]. Already recognized by R. Hofmann in 1993, there is a certain curious asymmetry in this strategy. We tend to think of common edges as pieces of “positive” information to ... |

48 | Fitness Landscapes, Memetic Algorithms, and Greedy Operators for Graph Bipartitioning
- Merz, Freisleben
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...al battlefields of MAs. A remarkable history of successes has been reported with respect to the application of MAs to N P−hard problems such as the following: Graph Partitioning [18] [19] [139] [142] =-=[143]-=-, Min Number Partitioning [14], Max Independent Set [2] [90] [200], Bin-Packing [195], Min Graph Coloring [41] [64] [60] [39], Set Covering [11], Single Machine Scheduling with setup-times and due-dat... |

45 | A General Method to Speed Up FixedParameter-Tractable Algorithms
- Niedermeier, Rossmanith
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... [32]. This method can solve the parameterized version of vertex cover in time O(1.271 k k 2 + kn). However, using this method together with the speed-up method proposed by Neidermeier and Rossmanith =-=[166]-=-, the problem can be solved in O(1.271 k + n), i.e. linear in n. The definition of the FPT class allows f(k) to grow arbitrarily fast. For the parameterized version of Planar Dominating Set the best k... |

44 | A new genetic local search algorithm for graph coloring
- Dorne, Hao
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...−hard problems such as the following: Graph Partitioning [18] [19] [139] [142] [143], Min Number Partitioning [14], Max Independent Set [2] [90] [200], Bin-Packing [195], Min Graph Coloring [41] [64] =-=[60]-=- [39], Set Covering [11], Single Machine Scheduling with setup-times and due-dates [119] [65] [146], Parallel Machine Scheduling [33] [35] [148] [135], Min Generalised Assignment [36], Multidimensiona... |

44 |
Explicit parallelism of genetic algorithms having population structures
- Gorges-Schleuter
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...appropriate set of rules, had for the overall performance of population search processes. A few months later, Moscato and Norman discovered that they shared similar views with other researchers [157] =-=[74]-=- and other authors proposing “island models” for GAs. Spacialization is now being recognized as the “catalyzer” responsible of a variety of phenomena [164] [163]. This is an important research issue, ... |

42 | A Hybrid Genetic Algorithm for Highly Constrained Timetabling
- Burke, Elliman, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...] [27], open shop scheduling [63] [34] [124], flowshop scheduling [159] [160] [30], project scheduling [168] [191] [177], warehouse scheduling [216], production planning [57] [149], timetabling [128] =-=[20]-=- [179] [192] [151] [152] [21] [22] [24] [23] [180], rostering [153] [53], and sport games scheduling [40]. Obviously, this list is by no means complete since its purpose is simply to document the wide... |

41 | Cost Versus Distance in the Traveling Salesman Problem
- Boese
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... hardly accepted by some researchers regardless all empirical evidence of the benefits of MAs that exploit, by using recombination, the correlation of highly evolved solutions [112] [154] [157] [155] =-=[15]-=- [142]. Already recognized by R. Hofmann in 1993, there is a certain curious asymmetry in this strategy. We tend to think of common edges as pieces of “positive” information to be passed on between ge... |