## Rewriting Logic Semantics: From Language Specifications to Formal Analysis Tools (2004)

Venue: | In Proceedings of the IJCAR 2004. LNCS |

Citations: | 38 - 9 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Meseguer04rewritinglogic,

author = {José Meseguer},

title = {Rewriting Logic Semantics: From Language Specifications to Formal Analysis Tools},

booktitle = {In Proceedings of the IJCAR 2004. LNCS},

year = {2004},

pages = {1--44},

publisher = {Springer LNAI}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Abstract. Formal semantic definitions of concurrent languages, when specified in a well-suited semantic framework and supported by generic and efficient formal tools, can be the basis of powerful software analysis tools. Such tools can be obtained for free from the semantic definitions; in our experience in just the few weeks required to define a language’s semantics even for large languages like Java. By combining, yet distinguishing, both equations and rules, rewriting logic semantic definitions unify both the semantic equations of equational semantics (in their higher-order denotational version or their first-order algebraic counterpart) and the semantic rules of SOS. Several limitations of both SOS and equational semantics are thus overcome within this unified framework. By using a high-performance implementation of rewriting logic such as Maude, a language’s formal specification can be automatically transformed into an efficient interpreter. Furthermore, by using Maude’s breadth first search command, we also obtain for free a semi-decision procedure for finding failures of safety properties; and by using Maude’s LTL model checker, we obtain, also for free, a decision procedure for LTL properties of finite-state programs. These possibilities, and the competitive performance of the analysis tools thus obtained, are illustrated by means of a concurrent Caml-like language; similar experience with Java (source and JVM) programs is also summarized. 1

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Citation Context ... 71, 68]; labeled transition systems [40]; grammars and string-rewriting systems [40]; Petri nets, including place/transition nets, contextual nets, algebraic nets, colored nets, and timed Petri nets =-=[40, 42, 69, 72, 59, 67]-=-; Gamma and the Chemical Abstract Machine [40]; CCS and LOTOS [47, 39, 14, 22, 82, 81, 83, 79]; the π calculus [84, 68, 77]; concurrent objects and actors [40, 41,75, 76]; the UNITY language [40]; con... |

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Citation Context ...articular variant or format can be faithfully represented by corresponding rewrite rules would be a tedious business. Fortunately, Peter Mosses, in his modular structural operational semantics (MSOS) =-=[56, 57, 54]-=-, has managed to neatly pack all the various pieces of semantic information usually scattered throughout a standard SOS rule inside rule labels, where now labels have a record structure whose fields c... |

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Citation Context ...d identically to each other, as explained in Section 5.2.sThis brings us to efficient tool support for both execution and formal analysis. Rewriting logic has several high-performance implementations =-=[5, 27, 18]-=-, of which the most comprehensive so far, in expressiveness and in range of features, is probably the Maude system [18]. Maude can both efficiently execute a rewriting logic axiomatization of a progra... |

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Citation Context ...uch an initial model: [38] shows that for rewrite theories R = (Σ, ∅, φ, R) with the rules R left-linear, TR is isomorphic to a model based on residuals and permutation equivalence proposed by Boudol =-=[6]-=-, and also that for R a rewrite theory of an orthogonal combinatory reduction system, including the λ-calculus, a quotient of TR is isomorphic to a well-known model of parallel reductions; [72] shows ... |

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Citation Context ...gorously pursued; this semantics-based method is wellunderstood for equational semantics [29] and has been used quite successfully by other researchers in the analysis of Java programs using both PVS =-=[36]-=- and ACL2 language specifications [51]; in the context of Maude, its ITP tool [19] has been already used to certify state estimation programs automatically synthesized from formal specifications [65, ... |

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Citation Context ... it in more than 100 minutes. JavaFAN can detect the deadlock for up to 9 philosophers. Other Java model checkers, with support for heuristics and abstraction techniques such as Java PathFinder (JPF) =-=[87, 10, 33]-=-, can do larger numbers. If the deadlock potential is removed, like in Section 4.2, thus diminishing the role of heuristics, then JavaFAN can prove the program deadlock-free for up to 7 philosophers, ... |

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Citation Context ...and timed Petri nets [40, 42, 69, 72, 59, 67]; Gamma and the Chemical Abstract Machine [40]; CCS and LOTOS [47, 39, 14, 22, 82, 81, 83, 79]; the π calculus [84, 68, 77]; concurrent objects and actors =-=[40, 41,75, 76]-=-; the UNITY language [40]; concurrent graph rewriting [42]; dataflow [42]; neural networks [42]; real-time systems, including timed automata, timed transition systems, hybrid automata, and timed Petri... |

41 | Java Model Checking
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Citation Context ...atarace. This example has been extensively studied in [31, 32]. JavaFAN’s search found the deadlock in 0.1 seconds at the source code level and in 0.3 seconds at the bytecode level, while the tool in =-=[60]-=- finds it in more than 2 seconds. Another comparison with [60] was done on a 2 stage pipeline code, each stage executing as a separate thread, against a property taken from [60]. JavaFAN model checks ... |

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Citation Context ... properties in a (possibly infinite-state) concurrent program using Maude’s search command; 2. an LTL model checker for finite-state programs or program abstractions; 3. a theorem prover (Maude’s ITP =-=[19]-=-) that can be used to semi-automatically prove programs correct. We only focus on the first two items in this paper, because they are entirely automatic (except of course for the need to equationally ... |

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Citation Context ...works [42]; real-time systems, including timed automata, timed transition systems, hybrid automata, and timed Petri nets [59, 58]; and the tile logic [28] model of synchronized concurrent computation =-=[48, 12]-=-. Since the above are typically executable, rewriting logic is a flexible operational semantic framework to specify such models. What is not immediately apparent is that it is also a flexible mathemat... |

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Citation Context ... and analyze programs using semantic language definitions in such a unified framework with suitable formal tools? We answer each of the above questions in the affirmative by proposing rewriting logic =-=[40, 13]-=- as such a unifying semantic framework. Roughly speaking, 2 a rewrite theory is a triple (Σ, E, R), with (Σ, E) an equational theory with signature of operations and sorts Σ and set of (possibly condi... |

33 | Specification of real-time and hybrid systems in rewriting logic
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Citation Context ... 71, 68]; labeled transition systems [40]; grammars and string-rewriting systems [40]; Petri nets, including place/transition nets, contextual nets, algebraic nets, colored nets, and timed Petri nets =-=[40, 42, 69, 72, 59, 67]-=-; Gamma and the Chemical Abstract Machine [40]; CCS and LOTOS [47, 39, 14, 22, 82, 81, 83, 79]; the π calculus [84, 68, 77]; concurrent objects and actors [40, 41,75, 76]; the UNITY language [40]; con... |

32 | Formal analysis of the remote agent before and after flight
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Citation Context ... tools. The Remote Agent (RA) is a spacecraft controller, part NASA’s Deep Space 1 shuttle, that deadlocked 96 million miles from Earth due to a datarace. This example has been extensively studied in =-=[31, 32]-=-. JavaFAN’s search found the deadlock in 0.1 seconds at the source code level and in 0.3 seconds at the bytecode level, while the tool in [60] finds it in more than 2 seconds. Another comparison with ... |

32 | Mapping tile logic into rewriting logic
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Citation Context ...works [42]; real-time systems, including timed automata, timed transition systems, hybrid automata, and timed Petri nets [59, 58]; and the tile logic [28] model of synchronized concurrent computation =-=[48, 12]-=-. Since the above are typically executable, rewriting logic is a flexible operational semantic framework to specify such models. What is not immediately apparent is that it is also a flexible mathemat... |

29 | Foundations of modular sos
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Citation Context ...articular variant or format can be faithfully represented by corresponding rewrite rules would be a tedious business. Fortunately, Peter Mosses, in his modular structural operational semantics (MSOS) =-=[56, 57, 54]-=-, has managed to neatly pack all the various pieces of semantic information usually scattered throughout a standard SOS rule inside rule labels, where now labels have a record structure whose fields c... |

26 |
Rewriting Logic as a Semantic Framework for Modular Structural Operational Semantics
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ecifications provide in practice an easy way to develop executable formal definitions of languages, which can then be subjected to different tool-supported formal analyses, is by now well established =-=[82, 7, 83, 77, 73, 44, 79,15, 64, 80, 26, 25, 37]-=-. However, ascertaining that this approach can scale up to large conventional languages such as Java and the JVM [26, 25], and that the generic formal analysis methods associated to semantic definitio... |

26 | Modular Rewriting Semantics of Programming Languages
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Citation Context ...hose fields correspond to the different semantic components (the store, the environment, action 31s32 traces for processes, and so on) before and after the transition thus labeled is taken. The paper =-=[46]-=- defines a faithful representation of an MSOS specification S as a corresponding rewrite theory τ(S), provided the MSOS rules in S are in a suitable normal form. Such MSOS rules do in fact have labels... |

26 | Inductive assertions and operational semantics
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... method is wellunderstood for equational semantics [29] and has been used quite successfully by other researchers in the analysis of Java programs using both PVS [36] and ACL2 language specifications =-=[51]-=-; in the context of Maude, its ITP tool [19] has been already used to certify state estimation programs automatically synthesized from formal specifications [65, 64] and also to verify sequential prog... |

21 | An Executable Specification of Asynchronous Pi-Calculus Semantics and May Testing in Maude 2.0
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Citation Context ...ecifications provide in practice an easy way to develop executable formal definitions of languages, which can then be subjected to different tool-supported formal analyses, is by now well established =-=[82, 7, 83, 77, 73, 44, 79,15, 64, 80, 26, 25, 37]-=-. However, ascertaining that this approach can scale up to large conventional languages such as Java and the JVM [26, 25], and that the generic formal analysis methods associated to semantic definitio... |

20 |
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Citation Context ...ction semantics,” which is different from SOS and is in fact a special case of rewriting semantics (see Section 5.2). – although some tools have been built to execute SOS definitions (see for example =-=[20]-=-) tool support is considerably less developed than for equational semantics. – standard SOS definitions are notoriously unmodular, unless one adopts Mosses’ MSOS framework (see Section 5.3). 1 Two goo... |

19 |
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Citation Context ...mming, which is the special case of rewrite theories whose set of rules is empty and whose equations are Church-Rosser, possibly modulo some axioms A; lambda calculi and combinatory reduction systemss=-=[40, 38, 71, 68]-=-; labeled transition systems [40]; grammars and string-rewriting systems [40]; Petri nets, including place/transition nets, contextual nets, algebraic nets, colored nets, and timed Petri nets [40, 42,... |

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Citation Context ... Semantics SOS can also be integrated within rewriting logic. This has been understood from the early stages of rewriting logic [40, 47, 39], and has led to several implementations of SOS definitions =-=[8, 80]-=-. Intuitively, an SOS rule of the form, P1 −→ P ′ 1 . . . Pn −→ P ′ n Q −→ Q ′ corresponds to a rewrite rule with rewrites in its condition. There is however an important difference between the meanin... |

17 |
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Citation Context ...A exists, and E0 a set of (ground) confluent and terminating 7 for each term t by applying the equations in E0 modulo A to t until termination. Second, the rules R should be coherent with E0 modulo A =-=[86]-=-; intuitively, this means that, to get the effect of rewriting in equivalence classes modulo E, we can always first simplify a term with the equations to its canonical form, and then rewrite with a ru... |

16 | Oliet, Implementing CCS in MAUDE
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Citation Context ...ecifications provide in practice an easy way to develop executable formal definitions of languages, which can then be subjected to different tool-supported formal analyses, is by now well established =-=[82, 7, 83, 77, 73, 44, 79,15, 64, 80, 26, 25, 37]-=-. However, ascertaining that this approach can scale up to large conventional languages such as Java and the JVM [26, 25], and that the generic formal analysis methods associated to semantic definitio... |

15 |
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Citation Context ...a vast literature in these two areas that we do not attempt to survey. However, we can mention some early denotational semantics papers such as [74, 66] and the survey [55]. Similarly, we can mention =-=[88, 30, 11]-=- for early algebraic semantics papers, and [29] for a recent textbook. We use the more neutral term equational semantics to emphasize the fact that denotational and algebraic semantics have many commo... |

14 | A Run-Time Environment for Concurrent Objects With Asynchronous Method Calls
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14 | Formal models of Java at the JVM level a survey from the ACL2 perspective
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Citation Context ...ss one adopts Mosses’ MSOS framework (see Section 5.3). 1 Two good examples of indirectly modeling concurrency within a purely functional framework are the ACL2 semantics of the JVM using a scheduler =-=[52]-=-, and the use of lazy data structures in Haskell to analyze cryptographic protocols [2]. 3s4 1.2 Rewriting Logic Unifies SOS and Equational Semantics For the most part, equational semantics and SOS ha... |

14 | Ölveczky, Rewriting Logic as a Unifying Framework for Petri Nets
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Citation Context ... 71, 68]; labeled transition systems [40]; grammars and string-rewriting systems [40]; Petri nets, including place/transition nets, contextual nets, algebraic nets, colored nets, and timed Petri nets =-=[40, 42, 69, 72, 59, 67]-=-; Gamma and the Chemical Abstract Machine [40]; CCS and LOTOS [47, 39, 14, 22, 82, 81, 83, 79]; the π calculus [84, 68, 77]; concurrent objects and actors [40, 41,75, 76]; the UNITY language [40]; con... |