## Web-based support for cooperative software engineering (2001)

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Venue: | Annals of Software Engineering |

Citations: | 7 - 2 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Goguen01web-basedsupport,

author = {Joseph A. Goguen and Kai Lin},

title = {Web-based support for cooperative software engineering},

journal = {Annals of Software Engineering},

year = {2001},

volume = {12},

pages = {12--25}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

recent advances in web technology, interface design, and specification. Our effort to improve the usability of such systems has led us into algebraic semiotics, while our effort to develop better formal methods for distributed concurrent systems has led us into hidden algebra and fuzzy logic. This paper discusses the Tatami system design, especially its software architecture, and its user interface principles. New work in the latter area includes an extension of algebraic semiotics to dynamic multimedia interfaces, and integrating Gibsonian affordances with algebraic semiotics. 1

### Citations

2704 |
A Robust Layered COntrol System for a Mobile Robot
- Brooks
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...formation that we need, when we need it; this “offloading” of representation into the world can provide an enormous gain in efficiency, as shown in second generation AI research, e.g., that of Brooks =-=[5, 6]-=-. It seems promising to integrate a theory of affordances with algebraic semiotics, in the hope that this could produce new insights for each field, and advance the state of theoretical research in us... |

1670 |
The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception
- Gibson
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... for comparing the quality of interface designs realizing the desired dynamics, without bias towards any particular implementation. 14s3.6 Gibsonian Affordances An “affordance” in the sense of Gibson =-=[11, 12]-=- may be defined as “a capability for a specific kind of action, involving an animal and a part of its environment.” For example, a cup provides an opportunity to exercise an affordance for drinking. A... |

1608 |
The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our capacity for processing information
- Miller
- 1956
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ropriate community of provers. Limiting the number of non-automatic proof steps on tatami pages to approximately 7 is consistent with classic work of Miller on limitations of human cognitive capacity =-=[40]-=-. 3. Explanation units correspond to the evaluative material in Labov’s theory. 4. The idea of a giving a “narrative” order to tatami pages comes from the theory of stories [33]; the idea of including... |

1563 |
The Design of Everyday Things
- Norman
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d to symbolically mediated activities; however it seems that socially-based semiotics described in [17] could provide a good basis for resolving this difficulty; also work of Ittelson [32] and Norman =-=[41]-=- seems relevant (though [41] is a bit naive); the “image schema” notion that developed in modern cognitive linguistics [34, 35] is also very relevant. 4 Conclusions and Future Research The Tatami proj... |

1400 | Metaphors we live by
- Lakoff, Johnson
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...gave some useful guidelines, including unity of time and place, having a beginning, middle and end, and the skillful use of language, especially metaphor, for which one can consult the work of Lakoff =-=[35]-=- and other cognitive linguists. The work of Joseph Campbell and Christopher Vogler [52, 8] on the role of characters in stories, especially the role of heroes, is also relevant; the dramatic importanc... |

1379 | Intelligence without Representation
- Brooks
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...formation that we need, when we need it; this “offloading” of representation into the world can provide an enormous gain in efficiency, as shown in second generation AI research, e.g., that of Brooks =-=[5, 6]-=-. It seems promising to integrate a theory of affordances with algebraic semiotics, in the hope that this could produce new insights for each field, and advance the state of theoretical research in us... |

1147 | Software engineering economics
- Boehm
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ickly written or even automatically generated from specifications that are sufficiently modular and detailed; moreover, empirical studies show that little of software cost comes from errors in coding =-=[4]-=-. This implies that a focus on specification and verification at the design level, avoiding the ugly complications of programming language semantics, will be the most productive. Behavioral logic is a... |

471 |
Human Computer Interaction
- Preece, Rogers, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ign in general, and for website design in particular, nearly always calls for using style guidelines to produce a uniform “look and feel” that is appropriate for the particular application, e.g., see =-=[43, 51]-=-. We have developed the following tatami conventions (updated from [19, 22]) as style guidelines for the proof websites generated by Kumo. To clarify the discussion, we distinguish sign systems for ab... |

286 |
The theory of affordances
- Huber, Gibson, et al.
- 1977
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... for comparing the quality of interface designs realizing the desired dynamics, without bias towards any particular implementation. 14s3.6 Gibsonian Affordances An “affordance” in the sense of Gibson =-=[11, 12]-=- may be defined as “a capability for a specific kind of action, involving an animal and a part of its environment.” For example, a cup provides an opportunity to exercise an affordance for drinking. A... |

127 |
L-Fuzzy Sets
- Goguen
- 1967
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...apture the multiplicative effect of plausible argumentation, in particular, the fact that a chain of plausible steps becomes increasingly implausible as it gets longer [14], we use the fuzzy logic of =-=[13]-=-, which represents conjunction with multiplication and disjunction with the maximum operation6 . This logic allows for the cumulative effect of uncertainty in chains of reasoning, while taking the mos... |

112 | A hidden agenda
- Goguen, Malcolm
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...with behavioral equations as atoms, plus induction for initially defined data types. Hidden algebra was originally proposed in [16], and has been elaborated in many subsequent publications, including =-=[25, 26, 27, 28, 46, 47, 45]-=-, which should be consulted for details. Hidden algebra can handle all the main features of modern software systems, including states, classes, subclasses, attributes, methods, abstract data types, co... |

103 |
Algebraic Semantics of Imperative Programs
- Goguen, Malcolm
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dered in isolation, but rather as elements of systems of related signs, including their structural aspects. For computer scientists, it is natural to use tools from algebraic specification (e.g., see =-=[24]-=-) to formalize the intuitive notion of a sign system, as a loose algebraic theory (consisting of a signature and some axioms) plus some further structure specific to semiotics, including constructors,... |

102 |
The Hero with a Thousand Faces
- Campbell
- 1949
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dle and end, and the skillful use of language, especially metaphor, for which one can consult the work of Lakoff [35] and other cognitive linguists. The work of Joseph Campbell and Christopher Vogler =-=[52, 8]-=- on the role of characters in stories, especially the role of heroes, is also relevant; the dramatic importance of having the hero tested by obstacles is emphasized by these authors. Some experimental... |

85 | Towards an algebraic semantics for the object paradigm
- Goguen, Diaconescu
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...g language semantics, will be the most productive. Behavioral logic is a diverse research area containing many approaches, including the original hidden algebra of [16] and subsequent improvements in =-=[20, 26, 25]-=-, the coherent hidden algebra of Diaconescu [10, 9], the observational logic of Bidoit and Hennicker [2, 3, 31], and a new generalization of hidden algebra that tries to treat all these variants in a ... |

73 |
The Logic of Inexact Concepts
- Goguen
- 1969
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sual fuzzy logic [53] does not capture the multiplicative effect of plausible argumentation, in particular, the fact that a chain of plausible steps becomes increasingly implausible as it gets longer =-=[14]-=-, we use the fuzzy logic of [13], which represents conjunction with multiplication and disjunction with the maximum operation6 . This logic allows for the cumulative effect of uncertainty in chains of... |

72 |
Types as theories
- Goguen
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...stem and Kumo further extend the logic by allowing first order sentences with behavioral equations as atoms, plus induction for initially defined data types. Hidden algebra was originally proposed in =-=[16]-=-, and has been elaborated in many subsequent publications, including [25, 26, 27, 28, 46, 47, 45], which should be consulted for details. Hidden algebra can handle all the main features of modern soft... |

65 |
An Introduction to Algebraic Semiotics, with Applications to User Interface Design
- Goguen
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e motivated by ideas from cognitive psychology, narratology and semiotics, as discussed further in Section 3. In particular, the structure of our proof websites was designed using algebraic semiotics =-=[18, 19]-=-, which combines algebraic specification with social semiotics. Algebraic semiotics provides a way to formalize user interface designs and to compare them for quality, based on how well they represent... |

61 |
Life Stories. The Creation of Coherence
- LINDE
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h “evaluates” the events, in the sense of relating them to socially shared values; and finally 5. an optional closing section, which may contains a “moral” or summary for the story. The above follows =-=[36, 37]-=-, which describe more recent developments than [33]. Aristotle [1] also gave some useful guidelines, including unity of time and place, having a beginning, middle and end, and the skillful use of lang... |

58 |
The transformation of experience in narrative syntax
- Labov
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o structure some of our proof websites, since proof obstacles are exactly what is needed for creating drama. An important resource for this is the theory of oral narratives developed by William Labov =-=[33]-=-, who showed that these have a precise structure, which includes the following: 1. an optional orientation section, which provides basic orientation information, such as the time and place of the stor... |

52 | Observational logic
- Hennicker, Bidoit
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...proaches, including the original hidden algebra of [16] and subsequent improvements in [20, 26, 25], the coherent hidden algebra of Diaconescu [10, 9], the observational logic of Bidoit and Hennicker =-=[2, 3, 31]-=-, and a new generalization of hidden algebra that tries to treat all these variants in a uniform way [47, 28]. These approaches fall into two broad categories, depending on whether or not a fixed data... |

46 | Circular Coinductive Rewriting
- Goguen, Lin, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...existing publicly available theorem proving systems. Instead, Kumo generates detailed proof scores that are sent to appropriate proof engines. Our current prototype uses the BOBJ (for Behavioral OBJ) =-=[21]-=- proof engine, but our Barista 3 proof server could also be used to wrap other proof engines, such as CafeOBJ [9] and OBJ3 [30]. The tatami database, BOBJ and Duck are implemented using Java technolog... |

44 |
Jos'e Meseguer, Kokichi Futatsugi, and Jean-Pierre Jouannaud. Introducing OBJ
- Goguen, Winkler
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... proof engines. Our current prototype uses the BOBJ (for Behavioral OBJ) [21] proof engine, but our Barista 3 proof server could also be used to wrap other proof engines, such as CafeOBJ [9] and OBJ3 =-=[30]-=-. The tatami database, BOBJ and Duck are implemented using Java technology, including JavaCC for parsing. XML files generated by Kumo are passed to a processor that uses an XSL style file to generate ... |

42 | Hiding more of hidden algebra
- Goguen, Rosu
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...with behavioral equations as atoms, plus induction for initially defined data types. Hidden algebra was originally proposed in [16], and has been elaborated in many subsequent publications, including =-=[25, 26, 27, 28, 46, 47, 45]-=-, which should be consulted for details. Hidden algebra can handle all the main features of modern software systems, including states, classes, subclasses, attributes, methods, abstract data types, co... |

41 | Towards a Social, Ethical Theory of Information
- Goguen
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...user interface design. One difficulty is that affordances as originally formulated are not well suited to symbolically mediated activities; however it seems that socially-based semiotics described in =-=[17]-=- could provide a good basis for resolving this difficulty; also work of Ittelson [32] and Norman [41] seems relevant (though [41] is a bit naive); the “image schema” notion that developed in modern co... |

34 | Observer Complete Definitions are Behaviourally Coherent
- Bidoit, Hennicker
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...proaches, including the original hidden algebra of [16] and subsequent improvements in [20, 26, 25], the coherent hidden algebra of Diaconescu [10, 9], the observational logic of Bidoit and Hennicker =-=[2, 3, 31]-=-, and a new generalization of hidden algebra that tries to treat all these variants in a uniform way [47, 28]. These approaches fall into two broad categories, depending on whether or not a fixed data... |

27 | Hidden congruent deduction
- Rosu, Goguen
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...re versions of coinduction, and the project has been developing a series of increasingly powerful coinduction rules, in order to obtain proofs that are conceptually simple and yet highly mechanizable =-=[44, 46, 47]-=-. The most recent, called circular coinductive rewriting, is implemented in our BOBJ system in a fully automatic form [21, 46]. Recent research has shown that proving behavioral satisfaction is undeci... |

25 | Incompleteness of behavioral logics
- Buss, Ro¸su
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... fully automatic form [21, 46]. Recent research has shown that proving behavioral satisfaction is undecidable, in the sense that there can be no complete recursively enumerable set of inference rules =-=[7]-=-; therefore there can be no final resting point on our quest for simple but ever more powerful rules and algorithms. The language of the BOBJ system [21] extends the classical algebraic specification ... |

24 | Hidden coinduction: behavioral correctness proofs for objects
- Goguen, Malcolm
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...with behavioral equations as atoms, plus induction for initially defined data types. Hidden algebra was originally proposed in [16], and has been elaborated in many subsequent publications, including =-=[25, 26, 27, 28, 46, 47, 45]-=-, which should be consulted for details. Hidden algebra can handle all the main features of modern software systems, including states, classes, subclasses, attributes, methods, abstract data types, co... |

21 | Hyperprogramming: A formal approach to software environments
- Goguen
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ments for correctness are often developed, and it would surely be a good thing if these could be preserved and integrated into the documentation of the system as it is produced (see the discussion in =-=[15]-=-). Moreover, the overhead of formal proofs may be worthwhile for some key aspects of systems, especially “safety critical” systems, where human life is at risk. As for multiple proof attempts, these o... |

19 | Social and semiotic analyses for theorem prover user interface design. Formal Aspects of Computing, 11:272–301. Special issue on user interfaces for theorem provers
- Goguen
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ct from that of natural language. (We hope to use MML when it becomes available.) Some additional applications of semiotic morphisms to the user interface design of the Tatami system are described in =-=[19]-=-, in a more precise style than here, although they are based on an older version of the system. For example, [19] shows that certain early designs for the status window were incorrect because the corr... |

17 | Observational specifications and the indistinguishability assumption
- Bernot, Bidoit, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...proaches, including the original hidden algebra of [16] and subsequent improvements in [20, 26, 25], the coherent hidden algebra of Diaconescu [10, 9], the observational logic of Bidoit and Hennicker =-=[2, 3, 31]-=-, and a new generalization of hidden algebra that tries to treat all these variants in a uniform way [47, 28]. These approaches fall into two broad categories, depending on whether or not a fixed data... |

16 |
Fire and Other Dangerous Things: What categories reveal about the mind
- Women
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d basis for resolving this difficulty; also work of Ittelson [32] and Norman [41] seems relevant (though [41] is a bit naive); the “image schema” notion that developed in modern cognitive linguistics =-=[34, 35]-=- is also very relevant. 4 Conclusions and Future Research The Tatami project has developed in a perhaps surprising diversity of directions, including theoretical foundations of behavioral verification... |

15 |
What is wrong with GUIs for theorem provers
- Merriam, Harrison
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e User editing Execute Kumo Proof website Figure 2. The Edit-Execute-Browse Cycle While this kind of edit-execute-browse cycle (again see Figure 2) might seem old-fashioned to some, empirical studies =-=[39]-=- and our own experience have found that the current fad for direct manipulation interfaces for theorem proving is counter-productive for complex proofs, although it has value as a pedagogical aid for ... |

13 | An overview of the Tatami project
- Goguen, Lin, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tion 3, and conclusions and future research in Section 4. Two appendices give some sample code, and a third gives some formal definitions. This paper extends, updates and amalgamates work reported in =-=[19, 22]-=- and other papers. The latest information on the Tatami project can always be found at its URL,www.cs.ucsd.edu/groups/tatami. 2 Tatami System Design This section sketches the Tatami system design, inc... |

12 | Circular Coinduction
- Rosu, Goguen
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...re versions of coinduction, and the project has been developing a series of increasingly powerful coinduction rules, in order to obtain proofs that are conceptually simple and yet highly mechanizable =-=[44, 46, 47]-=-. The most recent, called circular coinductive rewriting, is implemented in our BOBJ system in a fully automatic form [21, 46]. Recent research has shown that proving behavioral satisfaction is undeci... |

11 | A hidden Herbrand theorem: Combining the object, logic and functional paradigms
- Goguen, Malcolm, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context |

11 |
Visual perception of markings
- Ittelson
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e not well suited to symbolically mediated activities; however it seems that socially-based semiotics described in [17] could provide a good basis for resolving this difficulty; also work of Ittelson =-=[32]-=- and Norman [41] seems relevant (though [41] is a bit naive); the “image schema” notion that developed in modern cognitive linguistics [34, 35] is also very relevant. 4 Conclusions and Future Research... |

11 |
Swinging types = functions + relations + transition systems
- Padawitz
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... assumed for all models. All proof rules in use are sound for all these 7slogics, but all of them are also incomplete [7]. Padawitz’s “swinging types” are a powerful but less closely related approach =-=[42]-=-. 2.5 The Duck Language The Duck language includes commands that implement proof rules for hidden first order logic. These rules concern statements in the style of Gentzen’s “natural deduction,” which... |

10 | A protocol for distributed cooperative work
- Goguen, Ro, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...een verified and entered. Inconsistencies can also arise when items are deleted. The tatami protocol maintains the consistency of the tatami databases, taking account of the following situations (see =-=[29]-=- for a detailed description): 1. If there are some items depending on an item A, then deletion of item A is disallowed. 2. If there are no items depending on item A, then the owner of item A can delet... |

10 |
The Ethnomethodology of Mathematics
- Livingston
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...parating mechanical proof scores from the proof pages that generate them allows hiding the most routine details of proofs, just as human proofs often omit details in order to highlight the main ideas =-=[38]-=-; however, proof readers can still view them, and even execute them. 7. The optional closing webpages for proof websites are inspired by Labov’s theory of story structure [33], and these also appear i... |

7 |
Optimal structures for multi-media instruction
- Goguen, Linde
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he role of heroes, is also relevant; the dramatic importance of having the hero tested by obstacles is emphasized by these authors. Some experimental results from prior work on multimedia instruction =-=[23]-=- are also relevant, suggesting that narrative, especially when it is oral (i.e., in the audio medium), is important for controlling the interpretation of material in other media. It is also well known... |

7 |
The organization of discourse
- Linde
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...h “evaluates” the events, in the sense of relating them to socially shared values; and finally 5. an optional closing section, which may contains a “moral” or summary for the story. The above follows =-=[36, 37]-=-, which describe more recent developments than [33]. Aristotle [1] also gave some useful guidelines, including unity of time and place, having a beginning, middle and end, and the skillful use of lang... |

6 | Behavioral coinductive rewriting
- Rosu
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...re versions of coinduction, and the project has been developing a series of increasingly powerful coinduction rules, in order to obtain proofs that are conceptually simple and yet highly mechanizable =-=[44, 46, 47]-=-. The most recent, called circular coinductive rewriting, is implemented in our BOBJ system in a fully automatic form [21, 46]. Recent research has shown that proving behavioral satisfaction is undeci... |

5 |
Translation by S.H. Butcher; original from approximately 330 B.C
- Dover
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...red values; and finally 5. an optional closing section, which may contains a “moral” or summary for the story. The above follows [36, 37], which describe more recent developments than [33]. Aristotle =-=[1]-=- also gave some useful guidelines, including unity of time and place, having a beginning, middle and end, and the skillful use of language, especially metaphor, for which one can consult the work of L... |