## Understanding script-based stories using commonsense reasoning (2002)

Venue: | Cognitive Systems Research |

Citations: | 22 - 4 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Mueller02understandingscript-based,

author = {Erik T. Mueller},

title = {Understanding script-based stories using commonsense reasoning},

journal = {Cognitive Systems Research},

year = {2002},

volume = {5},

pages = {2004}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

reasoning, reasoning about action and change This paper investigates the use of commonsense reasoning to understand texts involving stereotypical activities or scripts. We present a system that understands news stories involving four terrorism scripts. The system (1) builds a commonsense reasoning problem given an information extraction template representing a terrorist incident, and (2) uses commonsense reasoning and a commonsense knowledge base to build a model of the terrorist incident. The reasoning problem, commonsense knowledge base, and model are expressed in the classical logic event calculus. The system was developed using the MUC3 and MUC4 development data set. We present the results of running the system on the MUC3 and MUC4 test data sets, using manually generated answer key templates and templates generated automatically by two MUC4 information extraction systems. We present a detailed analysis of the models produced by the system given automatically generated templates. We present methods for answering questions based on the models produced by our system. We assess the portability of the system by extending it to handle 10 scripts frequent in Project Gutenberg American literature texts. 1

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Citation Context ...od for performing commonsense reasoning about time and space. A number of well-developed formalisms are available for reasoning about time and action (Gerevini, 1997), such as the situation calculus (=-=McCarthy and Hayes, 1969-=-; Reiter, 2001), the event calculus (Kowalski and Sergot, 1986; Shanahan, 1997), and action languages (Kakas and Miller, 1997; Giunchiglia et al., 2004). We chose to use the classical logic event calc... |

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Citation Context ...e the conjunction of Axioms 2, 3, 6, and 7. Let ∆ be the conjunction of Axioms 5 and 12. Let Γ be the conjunction of Axioms 1, 4, 8, 9, 10, and 11. Let CIRC[Φ; ρ1, . . . , ρn] be the circumscription (=-=McCarthy, 1980-=-; Lifschitz, 1994) of the predicate symbols ρ1, . . . , ρn in the formula Φ. Let DEC be the conjunction of the discrete event calculus axioms DEC1 through DEC12. We can then show the following: CIRC[Σ... |

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Citation Context ... A number of well-developed formalisms are available for reasoning about time and action (Gerevini, 1997), such as the situation calculus (McCarthy and Hayes, 1969; Reiter, 2001), the event calculus (=-=Kowalski and Sergot, 1986-=-; Shanahan, 1997), and action languages (Kakas and Miller, 1997; Giunchiglia et al., 2004). We chose to use the classical logic event calculus (Miller and Shanahan, 2002) and an efficient, satisfiabil... |

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Citation Context ...nahan, 1999), which derives from the original event calculus of Kowalski and Sergot (1986). The classical logic event calculus is based on many-sorted predicate calculus with equality (Walther, 1987; =-=Enderton, 2001-=-). The event calculus includes sorts (or types) for fluents, events, time points, and domain objects. A fluent (McCarthy and Hayes, 1969) is a time-varying proposition such as the fact that a particul... |

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Citation Context ...ided construction of an information extraction system by defining the annotation types for each of the 10 scripts and manually annotating the text excerpts in the corpus, along the lines of FrameNet (=-=Baker, Fillmore, and Lowe, 1998-=-). 8.2 Script selection and corpus formation The first step was to decide what 10 scripts to use, and form a corpus of text excerpts for each script. We started by downloading 1,401 American literatur... |

477 |
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Citation Context ...ry understanding systems are reviewed by Ram and Moorman (1999) and Mueller (2002). The notion that understanding consists of building models derives from past research on mental models (Craik, 1943; =-=Johnson-Laird, 1983-=-). Cognitive psychologists have argued that the reader of a narrative creates a situation or mental model of the narrative including the goals and personalities of the characters and the physical sett... |

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Citation Context ...nse reasoning about time and space. A number of well-developed formalisms are available for reasoning about time and action (Gerevini, 1997), such as the situation calculus (McCarthy and Hayes, 1969; =-=Reiter, 2001-=-), the event calculus (Kowalski and Sergot, 1986; Shanahan, 1997), and action languages (Kakas and Miller, 1997; Giunchiglia et al., 2004). We chose to use the classical logic event calculus (Miller a... |

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Citation Context ...rals, where each literal is a variable or a negated variable. A complete satisfiability solver produces all satisfying truth assignments. Thus we restrict the predicate calculus to a finite universe (=-=Kautz and Selman, 1992-=-; Jackson, 2000). Following Shanahan and Witkowski (2004), we restrict the event calculus to finite sets of variables, constants, function symbols, predicate symbols, sorts, events, fluents, time poin... |

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Citation Context ...epresents time, space, and the states and events occurring in that time and space, as described in the story. The system is a narrow coverage system that handles stories involving particular scripts (=-=Schank and Abelson, 1977-=-; Abelson, 1981): stereotypical activities consisting of two or more events, such as eating in a restaurant or kidnapping. 2sWe require a method for performing commonsense reasoning about time and spa... |

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Citation Context ...e been developed for the event calculus (Shanahan, 1996; Morgenstern, 2001; Shanahan, 2004). A number of choices are available for dealing with input natural language text, such as syntactic parsers (=-=Sleator and Temperley, 1991-=-; Collins, 2003) and semantic parsers (Alshawi, 1992; Gildea and Jurafsky, 2002). For understanding script-based stories, the essential tasks are to classify what script is active in a story, determin... |

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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n of Axioms 2, 3, 6, and 7. Let ∆ be the conjunction of Axioms 5 and 12. Let Γ be the conjunction of Axioms 1, 4, 8, 9, 10, and 11. Let CIRC[Φ; ρ1, . . . , ρn] be the circumscription (McCarthy, 1980; =-=Lifschitz, 1994-=-) of the predicate symbols ρ1, . . . , ρn in the formula Φ. Let DEC be the conjunction of the discrete event calculus axioms DEC1 through DEC12. We can then show the following: CIRC[Σ; Initiates, Term... |

317 | Automatically Generating Extraction Patterns from Untagged Texts
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Citation Context ...1997). A number of machine learning techniques have been developed to facilitate the rapid development of information extraction systems (Riloff, 1993; Kim and Moldovan, 1995; Soderland et al., 1995; =-=Riloff, 1996-=-; Califf, 1998; Chai, 1998; Freitag, 1998; Català, Castell, and Martín, 2003). Since the cost of building an information extraction system is widely known, we did not investigate this question again. ... |

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Citation Context ...y what script is active in a story, determine what story characters and physical objects fill what roles of the script, and determine what script events have occurred. Information extraction systems (=-=Cowie and Lehnert, 1996-=-; Cardie, 1997) perform exactly these tasks. The architecture of our system is shown in Figure 1. The system operates as follows: (1) The system takes as input a template about a terrorism event produ... |

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Citation Context ...ons of room-scale topological space and bombs. 4.1 Room-scale topological space Our commonsense knowledge base provides representations of space at different levels of the spatial semantic hierarchy (=-=Kuipers, 2000-=-) such as topological space and metric space as well as at different levels of granularity such as roomscale and object-scale space. The room-scale topological space representation 16sFormula Sort Eng... |

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Citation Context ...system is shown in Figure 1. The system operates as follows: (1) The system takes as input a template about a terrorism event produced by an information extraction system used in the MUC evaluations (=-=Grishman and Sundheim, 1996-=-). The template is a frame with slots and slot fillers. (2) The template is fed to a script classifier, which classifies what script is active in the template. (3) The template and script are passed t... |

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Citation Context ...1 Discrete event calculus domain axiom types where a condition is a conjunction of inequalities and atoms of the form HoldsAt(f, t) or ¬HoldsAt(f, t) closure frame axioms (Haas, 1987; Schubert, 1990; =-=Davis, 1990-=-; Reiter, 1991; Reiter, 2001), extended to allow fluents to be released from the commonsense law of inertia. Axioms DEC9 through DEC12 describe how the occurrence of an event affects the states of flu... |

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Citation Context ...Gerevini, 1997), such as the situation calculus (McCarthy and Hayes, 1969; Reiter, 2001), the event calculus (Kowalski and Sergot, 1986; Shanahan, 1997), and action languages (Kakas and Miller, 1997; =-=Giunchiglia et al., 2004-=-). We chose to use the classical logic event calculus (Miller and Shanahan, 2002) and an efficient, satisfiability-based method for reasoning in the event calculus (Mueller, 2004c; Mueller, 2004a; Sha... |

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Citation Context ...al weeks to many months (Grishman and Sundheim, 1996; Cardie, 1997). A number of machine learning techniques have been developed to facilitate the rapid development of information extraction systems (=-=Riloff, 1993-=-; Kim and Moldovan, 1995; Soderland et al., 1995; Riloff, 1996; Califf, 1998; Chai, 1998; Freitag, 1998; Català, Castell, and Martín, 2003). Since the cost of building an information extraction system... |

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Citation Context ...er games. Story understanding systems are reviewed by Ram and Moorman (1999) and Mueller (2002). The notion that understanding consists of building models derives from past research on mental models (=-=Craik, 1943-=-; Johnson-Laird, 1983). Cognitive psychologists have argued that the reader of a narrative creates a situation or mental model of the narrative including the goals and personalities of the characters ... |

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Citation Context ... calculus formula. (2) Simplify the formula using standard techniques (Nerode and Shore, 1997). (3) Convert the formula to compact conjunctive normal form using the technique of renaming subformulas (=-=Plaisted and Greenbaum, 1986-=-; Giunchiglia and Sebastiani, 1999). (4) Construct a one-to-one and onto map B that maps the ground atoms of the formula to boolean variables. (5) Construct a formula to pass to the satisfiability sol... |

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Citation Context ... formalisms are available for reasoning about time and action (Gerevini, 1997), such as the situation calculus (McCarthy and Hayes, 1969; Reiter, 2001), the event calculus (Kowalski and Sergot, 1986; =-=Shanahan, 1997-=-), and action languages (Kakas and Miller, 1997; Giunchiglia et al., 2004). We chose to use the classical logic event calculus (Miller and Shanahan, 2002) and an efficient, satisfiability-based method... |

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Citation Context ...ens(e, t) Table 1 Discrete event calculus domain axiom types where a condition is a conjunction of inequalities and atoms of the form HoldsAt(f, t) or ¬HoldsAt(f, t) closure frame axioms (Haas, 1987; =-=Schubert, 1990-=-; Davis, 1990; Reiter, 1991; Reiter, 2001), extended to allow fluents to be released from the commonsense law of inertia. Axioms DEC9 through DEC12 describe how the occurrence of an event affects the ... |

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Citation Context ...mata. A debate over model-based versus proof-based reasoning rages in the fields of artificial intelligence (Levesque, 1986; Halpern and Vardi, 1991; Davis, 1991) and psychology (Johnson-Laird, 1993; =-=Rips, 1994-=-). The degree to which readers generate inferences and construct mental models during reading is also debated (McKoon and Ratcliff, 1992; Graesser, Singer, and Trabasso, 1994). For the purposes of bui... |

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Citation Context ...ss the method by which reasoning problems are solved. 3.1 Discrete event calculus In order to perform commonsense reasoning, we use the classical logic event calculus (Shanahan, 1995; Shanahan, 1997; =-=Shanahan, 1999-=-), which derives from the original event calculus of Kowalski and Sergot (1986). The classical logic event calculus is based on many-sorted predicate calculus with equality (Walther, 1987; Enderton, 2... |

135 |
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Citation Context ...; Davis, 1991) and psychology (Johnson-Laird, 1993; Rips, 1994). The degree to which readers generate inferences and construct mental models during reading is also debated (McKoon and Ratcliff, 1992; =-=Graesser, Singer, and Trabasso, 1994-=-). For the purposes of building and debugging a deep understanding system, the model-based approach has some advantages: First, with a model-based system the consequences of a set of formulas are imme... |

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Citation Context ...atial occupancy arrays, and mental states are represented using finite automata. A debate over model-based versus proof-based reasoning rages in the fields of artificial intelligence (Levesque, 1986; =-=Halpern and Vardi, 1991-=-; Davis, 1991) and psychology (Johnson-Laird, 1993; Rips, 1994). The degree to which readers generate inferences and construct mental models during reading is also debated (McKoon and Ratcliff, 1992; ... |

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Citation Context ...s at time point t. (2) HoldsAt(f, t): Fluent f is true at time point t. (3) ReleasedAt(f, t): Fluent f is released from the commonsense law of inertia at time point t. The commonsense law of inertia (=-=Sandewall, 1994-=-; Shanahan, 1997) states that a fluent’s truth value persists unless the fluent is affected by an event. When a fluent is released from this law, its truth value can fluctuate. (4) Initiates(e, f, t):... |

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Citation Context ... is speculative. If information about uncertainty were added to input templates, the system could be extended to build and consult several alternative models for a story, as in supervaluation theory (=-=Kamp, 1975-=-). Many open problems remain: How far can our approach be taken? To what degree can story understanding be performed using scripts? Will script classification scale up to many, many scripts? To what d... |

109 | Empirical Methods in Information Extraction
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nding, and the ability to handle new and real stories. So far, a system like this has not been built. Several routes to such a system have been explored: Information extraction systems (DeJong, 1979; =-=Cardie, 1997-=-) have been built that handle new, real-world stories, but they produce a shallow understanding. Several deep understanding systems have been built (Dyer, 1983; Norvig, 1989; Ram, 1989), but these do ... |

104 | Machine Learning for Information Extraction in Informal Domains
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Citation Context ...niques have been developed to facilitate the rapid development of information extraction systems (Riloff, 1993; Kim and Moldovan, 1995; Soderland et al., 1995; Riloff, 1996; Califf, 1998; Chai, 1998; =-=Freitag, 1998-=-; Català, Castell, and Martín, 2003). Since the cost of building an information extraction system is widely known, we did not investigate this question again. We avoided construction of an information... |

102 |
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Citation Context ...esented using spatial occupancy arrays, and mental states are represented using finite automata. A debate over model-based versus proof-based reasoning rages in the fields of artificial intelligence (=-=Levesque, 1986-=-; Halpern and Vardi, 1991; Davis, 1991) and psychology (Johnson-Laird, 1993; Rips, 1994). The degree to which readers generate inferences and construct mental models during reading is also debated (Mc... |

102 | Inference during reading
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...86; Halpern and Vardi, 1991; Davis, 1991) and psychology (Johnson-Laird, 1993; Rips, 1994). The degree to which readers generate inferences and construct mental models during reading is also debated (=-=McKoon and Ratcliff, 1992-=-; Graesser, Singer, and Trabasso, 1994). For the purposes of building and debugging a deep understanding system, the model-based approach has some advantages: First, with a model-based system the cons... |

86 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the states and events occurring in that time and space, as described in the story. The system is a narrow coverage system that handles stories involving particular scripts (Schank and Abelson, 1977; =-=Abelson, 1981-=-): stereotypical activities consisting of two or more events, such as eating in a restaurant or kidnapping. 2sWe require a method for performing commonsense reasoning about time and space. A number of... |

80 | Relational Learning Techniques for Natural Language Information Extraction
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r of machine learning techniques have been developed to facilitate the rapid development of information extraction systems (Riloff, 1993; Kim and Moldovan, 1995; Soderland et al., 1995; Riloff, 1996; =-=Califf, 1998-=-; Chai, 1998; Freitag, 1998; Català, Castell, and Martín, 2003). Since the cost of building an information extraction system is widely known, we did not investigate this question again. We avoided con... |

78 |
Script Application: Computer Understanding of Newspaper Stories
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...int submitted to Elsevier Sciencesfilling in many details not explicitly stated in the story (Domeshek, Jones, and Ram, 1999). A number of story understanding systems have been built (Charniak, 1972; =-=Cullingford, 1978-=-; Wilensky, 1978; Lebowitz, 1980; Schank and Riesbeck, 1981; Dyer, 1983; Dolan, 1989; Norvig, 1989; Reeves, 1991; Miikkulainen, 1993; Hobbs et al., 1993; Schank, Kass, and Riesbeck, 1994; Shapiro and ... |

77 |
The case for domain-specific frame axioms
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- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ition ⇒ Happens(e, t) Table 1 Discrete event calculus domain axiom types where a condition is a conjunction of inequalities and atoms of the form HoldsAt(f, t) or ¬HoldsAt(f, t) closure frame axioms (=-=Haas, 1987-=-; Schubert, 1990; Davis, 1990; Reiter, 1991; Reiter, 2001), extended to allow fluents to be released from the commonsense law of inertia. Axioms DEC9 through DEC12 describe how the occurrence of an ev... |

74 | A circumscriptive calculus of events
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- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...vent calculus is used, and discuss the method by which reasoning problems are solved. 3.1 Discrete event calculus In order to perform commonsense reasoning, we use the classical logic event calculus (=-=Shanahan, 1995-=-; Shanahan, 1997; Shanahan, 1999), which derives from the original event calculus of Kowalski and Sergot (1986). The classical logic event calculus is based on many-sorted predicate calculus with equa... |

72 | KARMA: Knowledge-Based Action Representation for Metaphor and Aspect
- Narayanan
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...; Lebowitz, 1980; Schank and Riesbeck, 1981; Dyer, 1983; Dolan, 1989; Norvig, 1989; Reeves, 1991; Miikkulainen, 1993; Hobbs et al., 1993; Schank, Kass, and Riesbeck, 1994; Shapiro and Rapaport, 1995; =-=Narayanan, 1997-=-). They may be characterized according to their (1) breadth of coverage, (2) depth of understanding, (3) ability to handle new stories, and (4) ability to handle real-world input such as text and spee... |

70 |
Toward a model of children's story comprehension (AI Laboratory
- Charniak
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t requires Preprint submitted to Elsevier Sciencesfilling in many details not explicitly stated in the story (Domeshek, Jones, and Ram, 1999). A number of story understanding systems have been built (=-=Charniak, 1972-=-; Cullingford, 1978; Wilensky, 1978; Lebowitz, 1980; Schank and Riesbeck, 1981; Dyer, 1983; Dolan, 1989; Norvig, 1989; Reeves, 1991; Miikkulainen, 1993; Hobbs et al., 1993; Schank, Kass, and Riesbeck,... |

70 |
In-Depth Understanding: A Computer Model of Integrated Processing for Narrative Comprehension
- Dyer
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...d in the story (Domeshek, Jones, and Ram, 1999). A number of story understanding systems have been built (Charniak, 1972; Cullingford, 1978; Wilensky, 1978; Lebowitz, 1980; Schank and Riesbeck, 1981; =-=Dyer, 1983-=-; Dolan, 1989; Norvig, 1989; Reeves, 1991; Miikkulainen, 1993; Hobbs et al., 1993; Schank, Kass, and Riesbeck, 1994; Shapiro and Rapaport, 1995; Narayanan, 1997). They may be characterized according t... |

70 |
The Metanovel: Writing Stories by Computer
- Meehan
- 1976
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...handle new stories (but not real-world text). The Meta-AQUA system (Cox and Ram, 1999), an extension of AQUA (Ram, 1989), handles new stories automatically generated by the Tale-Spin story generator (=-=Meehan, 1976-=-). The distributed situation space model of Frank, Koppen, Noordman, and Vonk (2003) handles new stories occurring in a microworld consisting of two children playing soccer, hideand-seek, and computer... |

65 | Introspective multistrategy learning: On the construction of learning strategies
- Cox, Ram
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nimplemented methods for answering questions in our system in Section 7. Several other deep story understanding systems are able to handle new stories (but not real-world text). The Meta-AQUA system (=-=Cox and Ram, 1999-=-), an extension of AQUA (Ram, 1989), handles new stories automatically generated by the Tale-Spin story generator (Meehan, 1976). The distributed situation space model of Frank, Koppen, Noordman, and ... |

63 | A simple declarative language for describing narratives with ations
- Kakas, Miller
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... about time and action (Gerevini, 1997), such as the situation calculus (McCarthy and Hayes, 1969; Reiter, 2001), the event calculus (Kowalski and Sergot, 1986; Shanahan, 1997), and action languages (=-=Kakas and Miller, 1997-=-; Giunchiglia et al., 2004). We chose to use the classical logic event calculus (Miller and Shanahan, 2002) and an efficient, satisfiability-based method for reasoning in the event calculus (Mueller, ... |

56 | Noise and the common sense informatic situation
- Shanahan
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ame problem—the problem of determining what does not change when an action is performed (Ford and Pylyshyn, 1996; Shanahan, 2002). Representations of space have been developed for the event calculus (=-=Shanahan, 1996-=-; Morgenstern, 2001; Shanahan, 2004). A number of choices are available for dealing with input natural language text, such as syntactic parsers (Sleator and Temperley, 1991; Collins, 2003) and semanti... |

53 |
A many-sorted calculus based on resolution and paramodulation
- Walther
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ahan, 1997; Shanahan, 1999), which derives from the original event calculus of Kowalski and Sergot (1986). The classical logic event calculus is based on many-sorted predicate calculus with equality (=-=Walther, 1987-=-; Enderton, 2001). The event calculus includes sorts (or types) for fluents, events, time points, and domain objects. A fluent (McCarthy and Hayes, 1969) is a time-varying proposition such as the fact... |