## Language and number: A bilingual training study (2001)

Venue: | Cognition |

Citations: | 32 - 3 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Spelke01languageand,

author = {Elizabeth S. Spelke and Sanna Tsivkin},

title = {Language and number: A bilingual training study},

journal = {Cognition},

year = {2001},

volume = {78},

pages = {45--88}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

### Citations

406 |
The organizution of learning
- Gallistel
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Citation Context ...it Research over the last decades has provided evidence for representations of number in a variety of non-human animals (for reviews see Boysen & Capaldi, 1993; Davis & PeÂrusse, 1988; Dehaene, 1997; =-=Gallistel, 1990-=-). For example, * Corresponding author. Fax: 11-617-258-8654. E-mail address: spelke@mit.edu (E.S. Spelke). 0010-0277/01/$ - see front matter q 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. PII: S00... |

356 | Knowledge of Language. Its Nature, Origin and Use - Chomsky - 1986 |

156 |
A Stuc@ of Concepts
- Peacocke
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... form languagedependent representations of egocentric spatial directions (Hermer & Spelke, 1996; Hermer-Vazquez, Spelke, & Katsnelson, 1999), geocentric spatial directions (Levinson, 1996), and time (=-=Peacocke, 1992-=-). As a preliminary test of these proposals, small amounts of information in each of these categories were included in each story, and small numbers of questions assessing memory for this information ... |

153 | The number sense
- Dehaene
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...com/locate/cognit Research over the last decades has provided evidence for representations of number in a variety of non-human animals (for reviews see Boysen & Capaldi, 1993; Davis & PeÂrusse, 1988; =-=Dehaene, 1997-=-; Gallistel, 1990). For example, * Corresponding author. Fax: 11-617-258-8654. E-mail address: spelke@mit.edu (E.S. Spelke). 0010-0277/01/$ - see front matter q 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights r... |

138 |
Sources of mathematical thinking: Behavioral and brain-imaging evidence
- Dehaene, Spelke, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... one of its richest and most dramatic outcomes. Acknowledgements Portions of this research were submitted as a masters thesis at MIT by S.T.; portions of Experiments 1 and 2 were reported in Science (=-=Dehaene, Spelke, Pinel, Stanescu, & Tsivkin, 1999-=-). We thank Stanislas Dehaene, Susan Carey, Frank Keil, Molly Potter, Karen Wynn, and Fei Xu for criticisms and suggestions and Kirsten Condry for assistance. This study was supported by NIH grant 231... |

130 |
The child’s understanding of number
- Gelman, Gallistel
- 1978
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ties suggest considerable continuity in number representations over human evolution, there are striking discontinuities as well. Between the ages of 2 and 4, human children learn verbal counting (see =-=Gelman & Gallistel, 1978-=-; Wynn, 1990). Once counting is mastered, children generalize the counting procedure to larger numbers with no evident upper bound and with no speci®c training, a feat not seen in any animal (Gelman &... |

121 |
Preverbal and verbal counting and computation
- GALLISTEL, GELMAN
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of addition (Boysen & Berntson, 1989). In all these cases, the performance of non-human animals either equaled or exceeded the performance of human infants tested with no training (for discussion see =-=Gallistel & Gelman, 1992-=-; Hauser & Carey, 1998). Although these abilities suggest considerable continuity in number representations over human evolution, there are striking discontinuities as well. Between the ages of 2 and ... |

106 |
Addition and Subtraction by human infants
- Wynn
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ions of discrete objects that capture the distinction between one object and two objects and allow computation of the effects of adding exactly one object to an array of objects (Hauser et al., 1996; =-=Wynn, 1992-=-a; for discussion see Hauser & Carey, 1998), although some of the properties of this system are currently under debate (see Scholl, in press). Although small, exact numerosities could in principle be ... |

99 |
Frames of reference and Molyneux's question: Cross-linguistic evidence. Language and
- Levinson
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s been proposed that humans form languagedependent representations of egocentric spatial directions (Hermer & Spelke, 1996; Hermer-Vazquez, Spelke, & Katsnelson, 1999), geocentric spatial directions (=-=Levinson, 1996-=-), and time (Peacocke, 1992). As a preliminary test of these proposals, small amounts of information in each of these categories were included in each story, and small numbers of questions assessing m... |

68 |
Modularity and development: the case of spatial reorientation
- Hermer, Spelke
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tion, besides exact number, are storied in a language-speci®c or language-independent manner. It has been proposed that humans form languagedependent representations of egocentric spatial directions (=-=Hermer & Spelke, 1996-=-; Hermer-Vazquez, Spelke, & Katsnelson, 1999), geocentric spatial directions (Levinson, 1996), and time (Peacocke, 1992). As a preliminary test of these proposals, small amounts of information in each... |

63 | A geometric process for spatial reorientation in young children - Hermer, Spelke - 1994 |

62 |
Domain-specific knowledge and conceptual change
- Carey, Spelke
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a species-speci®c system of knowledge of number, and that uniquely human number representations arise as children employ this system to single out numerosities and explore their interrelations (e.g. =-=Carey & Spelke, 1994-=-; Gelman & Gallistel, 1978). Others have proposed that humans are endowed with the same cognitive systems as are other animals, and that our greater attainment of number knowledge stems from quantitat... |

59 |
Children’s understanding of counting
- Wynn
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...continuity in number representations over human evolution, there are striking discontinuities as well. Between the ages of 2 and 4, human children learn verbal counting (see Gelman & Gallistel, 1978; =-=Wynn, 1990-=-). Once counting is mastered, children generalize the counting procedure to larger numbers with no evident upper bound and with no speci®c training, a feat not seen in any animal (Gelman & Gallistel, ... |

50 |
Ordering of the numerosities 1 to 9 by monkeys
- Brannon, Terrace
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ct numbers of objects in sets as large as 10 (Boysen & Capaldi, 1993; Matsuzawa, 1985; Pepperberg, 1987), two monkeys learned to order the numbers 1±4 and gave ordinal judgements for numbers up to 8 (=-=Brannon & Terrace, 1998-=-), and one chimpanzee learned to use number symbols to enumerate objects under conditions suggesting a process of addition (Boysen & Berntson, 1989). In all these cases, the performance of non-human a... |

48 | Number versus contour length in infants’ discrimination of small visual sets - Clearfield, Mix - 1999 |

48 |
Working Memory and Language
- Gathercole, Baddeley
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mpany the onset of verbal counting (Gelman & Gallistel, 1978; Wynn, 1990) and that ef®ciency of arithmetic calculation is related to the ef®cient articulation of number words (Ellis & Hennelly, 1980; =-=Gathercole & Baddeley, 1993-=-). Finally, many observers have noted that speakers of two or more languages tend to count and perform arithmetic in just one of their languages ± usually the language in which they originally learned... |

44 |
Children’s acquisition of number words and the counting system
- Wynn
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ions of discrete objects that capture the distinction between one object and two objects and allow computation of the effects of adding exactly one object to an array of objects (Hauser et al., 1996; =-=Wynn, 1992-=-a; for discussion see Hauser & Carey, 1998), although some of the properties of this system are currently under debate (see Scholl, in press). Although small, exact numerosities could in principle be ... |

41 |
Cognitive mechanisms in numerical processing: Evidence from acquired dyscalculia
- McCloskey
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...europsychologists have found that disorders in number representation frequently are accompanied by disorders in languagesE.S. Spelke, S. Tsivkin / Cognition 78 (2001) 45±88 47 (Dehaene & Cohen, 1991; =-=McCloskey, 1992-=-; Warrington, 1982). Students of cognitive development have observed that advances in abilities to represent numbers accompany the onset of verbal counting (Gelman & Gallistel, 1978; Wynn, 1990) and t... |

39 | Spontaneous number representation in semi-free-ranging rhesus monkeys
- Hauser, Carey, et al.
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tion 78 (2001) 45±88 untrained monkeys represent the exact number of objects in a scene, provided the number is small, and take account of the effects of additions and subtractions of single objects (=-=Hauser, Carey, & Hauser, 2000-=-; Hauser, MacNeilage, & Ware, 1996). Trained and untrained birds, ®sh, and mammals represent the approximate numerosity of larger sets of items (for discussion see Gallistel, 1990). After extensive tr... |

31 |
Two mental calculation systems: A case study of severe acalculia with preserved approximation
- Dehaene, Cohen
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...1994; Hurford, 1987). Neuropsychologists have found that disorders in number representation frequently are accompanied by disorders in languagesE.S. Spelke, S. Tsivkin / Cognition 78 (2001) 45±88 47 (=-=Dehaene & Cohen, 1991-=-; McCloskey, 1992; Warrington, 1982). Students of cognitive development have observed that advances in abilities to represent numbers accompany the onset of verbal counting (Gelman & Gallistel, 1978; ... |

25 |
The numerical attribute of stimuli
- Church, Meck
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...er representations found in animals serve as inputs to the operation of multiplication. Thesevidence for multiplication processes in animals, however, is indirect and open to other explanations (e.g. =-=Church & Meck, 1984-=-). Based on analyses of human patient data and contrasting analyses of animal experiments, Dehaene (1997) proposed that approximate number representations enter into the operations of addition and sub... |

25 | Language and space - Bloom, Peterson, et al. - 1991 |

21 |
Building a cognitive creature from a set of primitives: Evolutionary and developmental insights
- HAUSER, CAREY
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tson, 1989). In all these cases, the performance of non-human animals either equaled or exceeded the performance of human infants tested with no training (for discussion see Gallistel & Gelman, 1992; =-=Hauser & Carey, 1998-=-). Although these abilities suggest considerable continuity in number representations over human evolution, there are striking discontinuities as well. Between the ages of 2 and 4, human children lear... |

20 |
Use of numbers by a chimpanzee
- MATSUZAWA
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f items (for discussion see Gallistel, 1990). After extensive training, several chimpanzees and one parrot learned symbols for exact numbers of objects in sets as large as 10 (Boysen & Capaldi, 1993; =-=Matsuzawa, 1985-=-; Pepperberg, 1987), two monkeys learned to order the numbers 1±4 and gave ordinal judgements for numbers up to 8 (Brannon & Terrace, 1998), and one chimpanzee learned to use number symbols to enumera... |

17 | Linguistic cues in the acquisition of number words
- Bloom, Wynn
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r words may connect only to representations of sets constructed by the approximate large number system. As children experience the different number words in the same quanti®er positions in sentences (=-=Bloom & Wynn, 1997-=-), they may come to connect each number word to representations in both systems: representations of a set of individuals. Moreover, as they use the number words in sequence in the counting routine, th... |

17 |
Language and number
- Hurford
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ed that both the sentences of a language and the numbers in a counting sequence have the property of discrete in®nity, and he suggested that the same recursive device underlies both (cf. Bloom, 1994; =-=Hurford, 1987-=-). Neuropsychologists have found that disorders in number representation frequently are accompanied by disorders in languagesE.S. Spelke, S. Tsivkin / Cognition 78 (2001) 45±88 47 (Dehaene & Cohen, 19... |

15 |
Quantity-based interference and symbolic representations in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes
- BERNTSON, HANNAN, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...1±4 and gave ordinal judgements for numbers up to 8 (Brannon & Terrace, 1998), and one chimpanzee learned to use number symbols to enumerate objects under conditions suggesting a process of addition (=-=Boysen & Berntson, 1989-=-). In all these cases, the performance of non-human animals either equaled or exceeded the performance of human infants tested with no training (for discussion see Gallistel & Gelman, 1992; Hauser & C... |

15 |
Epigenetic foundations of knowledge structures: Initial and transcendent constructions
- Gelman
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... 1997). Finally, children and adults extend their number representations beyond the limits of their counting procedures, using arithmetic operations to pick out fractions, zero, and negative numbers (=-=Gelman, 1991-=-). All these developments distinguish human children from the most highly trained non-human animals. What is the source of these accomplishments? Some investigators have suggested that humans are endo... |

14 |
A bilingual word-length effect: Implications for intelligence testing and the relative ease of mental calculation in Welsh and English. British Journa l of Psycho logy
- Ellis, Hennelly
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o represent numbers accompany the onset of verbal counting (Gelman & Gallistel, 1978; Wynn, 1990) and that ef®ciency of arithmetic calculation is related to the ef®cient articulation of number words (=-=Ellis & Hennelly, 1980-=-; Gathercole & Baddeley, 1993). Finally, many observers have noted that speakers of two or more languages tend to count and perform arithmetic in just one of their languages ± usually the language in ... |

14 |
The fractionation of arithmetical skills: A single case study
- Warrington
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... have found that disorders in number representation frequently are accompanied by disorders in languagesE.S. Spelke, S. Tsivkin / Cognition 78 (2001) 45±88 47 (Dehaene & Cohen, 1991; McCloskey, 1992; =-=Warrington, 1982-=-). Students of cognitive development have observed that advances in abilities to represent numbers accompany the onset of verbal counting (Gelman & Gallistel, 1978; Wynn, 1990) and that ef®ciency of a... |

13 |
Evidence for conceptual quantitative abilities in the African grey parrot: Labeling of cardinal sets
- Pepperberg
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ussion see Gallistel, 1990). After extensive training, several chimpanzees and one parrot learned symbols for exact numbers of objects in sets as large as 10 (Boysen & Capaldi, 1993; Matsuzawa, 1985; =-=Pepperberg, 1987-=-), two monkeys learned to order the numbers 1±4 and gave ordinal judgements for numbers up to 8 (Brannon & Terrace, 1998), and one chimpanzee learned to use number symbols to enumerate objects under c... |

7 |
The development of numerical competence: Animal and human models
- BOYSEN, CAPALDI
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...45±88 45 Cognition 78 (2001) 45±88 www.elsevier.com/locate/cognit Research over the last decades has provided evidence for representations of number in a variety of non-human animals (for reviews see =-=Boysen & Capaldi, 1993-=-; Davis & PeÂrusse, 1988; Dehaene, 1997; Gallistel, 1990). For example, * Corresponding author. Fax: 11-617-258-8654. E-mail address: spelke@mit.edu (E.S. Spelke). 0010-0277/01/$ - see front matter q ... |

5 |
Differential processing of phonographic and logographic singledigit numbers by the two hemispheres
- Holender, Peereman
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he spoken language for production. These decoding and encoding processes might proceed automatically, even when no spoken response is required, producing the language-speci®c effects described above (=-=Holender & Peereman, 1987-=-; McCloskey, 1992). In the present experiments, we attempted to distinguish these possibilities by investigating whether different kinds of number facts are represented in a language-dependent or lang... |

4 |
Notational constraints on mental operations
- Gonzalez, Kolers
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ene, 1997). In experiments, bilinguals have been found to solve arithmetic problems with greater speed and accuracy when the problems are presented in their ®rst language (French-Mestre & Vaid, 1993; =-=Gonzalez & Kolers, 1987-=-; Kolers, 1968; Marsh & Maki, 1976; McClain & Huang, 1982). All the empirical ®ndings, however, can be interpreted in two ways. First, it is possible that numbers and arithmetic facts are represented ... |

3 |
Spontaneous ordinal judgments by pre-verbal infants
- Feigenson, Carey
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... additions on large numbers of items when the correct and incorrect numerosities differ by the same ratio. They can add 1 1 1 to yield 2 rather than 1 but fail to add 5 1 5 to yield 10 rather than 5 (=-=Feigenson & Carey, 2000-=-; Hauser et al., 2000). This ®nding and others (see Carey & Spelke, in press) suggest that the large approximate system fails to represent each member of a set as a persisting individual. Second, rese... |

3 |
Sources of ¯exibility in human cognition: dual-task studies of space and language
- Hermer-Vazquez, Spelke, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ber, are storied in a language-speci®c or language-independent manner. It has been proposed that humans form languagedependent representations of egocentric spatial directions (Hermer & Spelke, 1996; =-=Hermer-Vazquez, Spelke, & Katsnelson, 1999-=-), geocentric spatial directions (Levinson, 1996), and time (Peacocke, 1992). As a preliminary test of these proposals, small amounts of information in each of these categories were included in each s... |

2 |
Speed of simple arithmetic in bilinguals
- McClain, Huang
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...olve arithmetic problems with greater speed and accuracy when the problems are presented in their ®rst language (French-Mestre & Vaid, 1993; Gonzalez & Kolers, 1987; Kolers, 1968; Marsh & Maki, 1976; =-=McClain & Huang, 1982-=-). All the empirical ®ndings, however, can be interpreted in two ways. First, it is possible that numbers and arithmetic facts are represented in the speci®c natural language in which they are learned... |

1 | Tsivkin / Cognition 78 (2001) 45±88 - Spelke, S - 1994 |

1 | Constructing the integer list representation of number - Carey, Spelke - 1986 |

1 |
Numerical competence in animals: de®nitional issues, current evidence, and a new research agenda
- Davis, PeÂrusse
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...001) 45±88 www.elsevier.com/locate/cognit Research over the last decades has provided evidence for representations of number in a variety of non-human animals (for reviews see Boysen & Capaldi, 1993; =-=Davis & PeÂrusse, 1988-=-; Dehaene, 1997; Gallistel, 1990). For example, * Corresponding author. Fax: 11-617-258-8654. E-mail address: spelke@mit.edu (E.S. Spelke). 0010-0277/01/$ - see front matter q 2001 Elsevier Science B.... |

1 |
Numerical knowledge in infancy: the number/mass distinction. Poster presented at the biennial meeting
- Feigenson, Carey, et al.
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... in continuous variables such as the sizes and spacing of individual elements (Xu & Spelke, 2000) but fail to represent the cardinal values of small sets over the same changes (Clear®eld & Mix, 1999; =-=Feigenson, Carey, & Spelke, 1998-=-; Xu, 2000). This ®nding and others (see Carey & Spelke, in press) suggest that the small number system fails to represent a group of individuals explicitly as a set. If infants and non-human primates... |

1 |
Activation of number facts in bilinguals
- French-Mestre, Vaid
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...or counting change (see Dehaene, 1997). In experiments, bilinguals have been found to solve arithmetic problems with greater speed and accuracy when the problems are presented in their ®rst language (=-=French-Mestre & Vaid, 1993-=-; Gonzalez & Kolers, 1987; Kolers, 1968; Marsh & Maki, 1976; McClain & Huang, 1982). All the empirical ®ndings, however, can be interpreted in two ways. First, it is possible that numbers and arithmet... |

1 |
Cognitive ¯exibility as it emerges over evolution and development: the case of human spatial reorientation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation
- Hermer-Vazquez
- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...how evidence, in their spatial behavior, of an ability to conjoin geometric and non-geometric information at the age at which they begin to produce expressions such as `The toy is left of the truck' (=-=Hermer-Vazquez, 1997-=-). Most strikingly, human adults who normally show this ability appear temporarily to lose it and to form only separate geometric and non-geometric representations like young children and rats when th... |

1 |
Bilingualism and information processing
- Kolers
- 1968
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s, bilinguals have been found to solve arithmetic problems with greater speed and accuracy when the problems are presented in their ®rst language (French-Mestre & Vaid, 1993; Gonzalez & Kolers, 1987; =-=Kolers, 1968-=-; Marsh & Maki, 1976; McClain & Huang, 1982). All the empirical ®ndings, however, can be interpreted in two ways. First, it is possible that numbers and arithmetic facts are represented in the speci®c... |

1 |
What is innate and why. In M. Piatelli-Palmarini (Ed.), Language and learning: the debate between Piaget and Chomsky
- Putnam
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...the same cognitive systems as are other animals, and that our greater attainment of number knowledge stems from quantitative advantages such as a greater memory capacity or general intelligence (e.g. =-=Putnam, 1980-=-). A third proposal is our focus here. Humans may have the same initial number capacities as other animals but may develop new number representations through the use of a speci®c language. The languag... |

1 |
Numerical knowledge in infancy: two systems of representation. Paper presented at the biennial meeting
- Xu
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he sizes and spacing of individual elements (Xu & Spelke, 2000) but fail to represent the cardinal values of small sets over the same changes (Clear®eld & Mix, 1999; Feigenson, Carey, & Spelke, 1998; =-=Xu, 2000-=-). This ®nding and others (see Carey & Spelke, in press) suggest that the small number system fails to represent a group of individuals explicitly as a set. If infants and non-human primates are unabl... |