## A study of dynamic element matching techniques for three-level unit elements (2000)

Venue: | IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II |

Citations: | 5 - 4 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Rombouts00astudy,

author = {Pieter Rombouts and Ludo Weyten},

title = {A study of dynamic element matching techniques for three-level unit elements},

journal = {IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II},

year = {2000},

volume = {47},

pages = {1177--1187}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Abstract—Highly linear 3-level unit elements are available in any fully differential circuit. This is because each unit element in such a circuit can be either positively selected, negatively selected, or not selected. This paper presents a study of dynamic element techniques for such elements. It is shown how traditional dynamic element-matching techniques for 2-level unit elements such as the data directed swapper, the vector selector, and the tree structure can be adapted toward linear 3-level elements. In all these cases, the amount of hardware is reduced significantly by using 3-level elements. Also several efficient “data weighted averaging”-like implementations are presented. Then the effect of the nonlinearity of the 3-level unit element is analyzed. It is shown that this gives an additional error contribution that may limit the performance. Therefore, several efficient techniques to shape this effect as well are introduced. Index Terms—Analog-to-digital, digital-to-analog, dynamic element-matching, spectral shaping.

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Citation Context ...ment-matching techniques have been described. The first class consists of techniques that can be described by the vector selector 2 structure of [5]. The second class is the binary tree structure [9]–=-=[13]-=- and the third one the data-directed swapper [1], [7]. All these structures have been described for use with 2-level unit elements where it was assumed that the DAC input code is a positive integer va... |

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Citation Context ... three distinct classes of mismatch shaping dynamic element-matching techniques have been described. The first class consists of techniques that can be described by the vector selector 2 structure of =-=[5]-=-. The second class is the binary tree structure [9]–[13] and the third one the data-directed swapper [1], [7]. All these structures have been described for use with 2-level unit elements where it was ... |

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Citation Context ...y advantages of this, one can mention reduced filter requirements and reduced susceptibility to modulator instability, allowing a more aggressive noise shaping and reduced sensitivity to clock jitter =-=[1]-=-. However, such a multi-bit modulator needs a sufficiently linear and preferably low-noise multi-bit D/A converter (DAC). This has been the driving force for research in dynamic element-matching techn... |

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Citation Context ... was simulated. First- and second-order mismatch shaping structures were investigated. As a suitable test vehicle we used a 6-bit third-order single-loop modulator ADC cascaded with a 14-bit pipeline =-=[19]-=-. The cascade with the pipeline was added to assure that the performance of this structure is limited by mismatch noise and not by quantization noise. Note that analog circuit imperfections in the loo... |

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Citation Context ...owing section is included. IV. SOME SPECIAL “DATA WEIGHTED AVERAGING” (DWA)-LIKE IMPLEMENTATIONS A. Differential DWA A very popular dynamic element-matching technique for 2-level unit elements is DWA =-=[4]-=-. This is because it can be implemented with only a minimum of hardware [6]. It requires only one pointer that is queued for each element that is selectedsROMBOUTS AND WEYTEN: A STUDY OF DYNAMIC ELEME... |

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Citation Context ...Information Systems Laboratory, Ghent University, B-9000 Gent, Belgium. Publisher Item Identifier S 1057-7130(00)09925-0. 1057–7130/00$10.00 © 2000 IEEE linear 3-level unit element is available [15], =-=[17]-=-, [18]. This is because each unit element can now be either positively or negatively selected or not selected at all. Until now all the fully differential implementations of mismatch shaping DACs use ... |

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Citation Context ...hese techniques allow to realize a very linear multi-bit DAC. Although the DAC usually also produces an amount of mismatch noise, this additional noise contribution can be shaped as well [1]–[15]. In =-=[2]-=- a thorough theoretical study of these DAC’s was already given. Also many practical techniques for dynamic element matching have already been presented. Almost all these techniques are for 2-level uni... |

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Citation Context ...-LIKE IMPLEMENTATIONS A. Differential DWA A very popular dynamic element-matching technique for 2-level unit elements is DWA [4]. This is because it can be implemented with only a minimum of hardware =-=[6]-=-. It requires only one pointer that is queued for each element that is selectedsROMBOUTS AND WEYTEN: A STUDY OF DYNAMIC ELEMENT-MATCHING TECHNIQUES 1181 Fig. 5. Simulated peak ƒa@x C„rhAversus oversam... |

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Citation Context ...]–[16]. These techniques allow to realize a very linear multi-bit DAC. Although the DAC usually also produces an amount of mismatch noise, this additional noise contribution can be shaped as well [1]–=-=[15]-=-. In [2] a thorough theoretical study of these DAC’s was already given. Also many practical techniques for dynamic element matching have already been presented. Almost all these techniques are for 2-l... |

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Citation Context ...d swapper, or vector-selector structure. Here, a special case is considered that can be implemented extremely efficiently. The approach is based on a 2-path transform on a high-pass shaping technique =-=[14]-=-. If a high-pass mismatch transfer function can be approximated by Then, after a 2-path transformation, the resulting bandpass mismatch transfer function will be (9) (10) Obviously, this approach requ... |

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Citation Context ...t class consists of techniques that can be described by the vector selector 2 structure of [5]. The second class is the binary tree structure [9]–[13] and the third one the data-directed swapper [1], =-=[7]-=-. All these structures have been described for use with 2-level unit elements where it was assumed that the DAC input code is a positive integer value with . Then the element-selection values can take... |

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Citation Context ... element-matching techniques have been described. The first class consists of techniques that can be described by the vector selector 2 structure of [5]. The second class is the binary tree structure =-=[9]-=-–[13] and the third one the data-directed swapper [1], [7]. All these structures have been described for use with 2-level unit elements where it was assumed that the DAC input code is a positive integ... |

2 | Noise shaping dynamic element matching method using tree structure - Yasuda, Tanimoto - 1997 |

1 | A noise-shaping coder topology for ISC bit converters - Carley - 1989 |