## Iterative-improvement-based heuristics for adaptive scheduling of tasks sharing files on heterogeneous master-slave environments (2006)

Venue: | IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS |

Citations: | 7 - 4 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Kaya06iterative-improvement-basedheuristics,

author = {Kamer Kaya and Cevdet Aykanat},

title = {Iterative-improvement-based heuristics for adaptive scheduling of tasks sharing files on heterogeneous master-slave environments},

journal = {IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS},

year = {2006},

volume = {17},

number = {8},

pages = {883--896}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

The scheduling of independent but file-sharing tasks on heterogeneous master-slave platforms has recently found important applications in Grid environments. The scheduling heuristics recently proposed for this problem are all constructive in nature and based on a common greedy criterion which depends on the momentary completion time values of the tasks. We show that this greedy decision criterion has shortcomings in exploiting the file-sharing interaction among tasks since completion time values are inadequate to extract the global view of this interaction. We propose a three-phase scheduling approach which involves initial task assignment, refinement, and execution ordering phases. For the refinement phase, we model the target application as a hypergraph and, with an elegant hypergraph-partitioning-like formulation, we propose using iterative-improvement-based heuristics for refining the task assignments according to two novel objective functions. Unlike the turnaround time, which is the actual schedule cost, the smoothness of proposed objective functions enables the use of iterative-improvement-based heuristics successfully since their effectiveness and efficiency depend on the smoothness of the objective function. Experimental results on a wide range of synthetically generated heterogeneous master-slave frameworks show that the proposed three-phase scheduling approach performs much better than the greedy constructive approach.

### Citations

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Citation Context ... predetermined imbalance ratio. 4.2 Iterative-Improvement Heuristics The refinement heuristics proposed in this work are based on the iterative-improvement heuristics introduced by Kernighan-Lin (KL) =-=[18]-=- and Fidducia-Mattheyses (FM) [13] for graph/hypergraph partitioning. Both KL and FM are movebased approaches with the neighborhood operator of swapping a pair of vertices between parts or shifting a ... |

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Citation Context ... parts or shifting a vertex from one part to another, respectively. These heuristics have been widely used for graph/hypergraph partitioning by the VLSI [19] and scientific computing [4], [10], [11], =-=[17]-=-, [23] communities because of their effectiveness with good-quality results and efficiency with short runtimes. The FM algorithm, starting from an initial bipartition, performs a number of passes unti... |

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Citation Context ...2 Iterative-Improvement Heuristics The refinement heuristics proposed in this work are based on the iterative-improvement heuristics introduced by Kernighan-Lin (KL) [18] and Fidducia-Mattheyses (FM) =-=[13]-=- for graph/hypergraph partitioning. Both KL and FM are movebased approaches with the neighborhood operator of swapping a pair of vertices between parts or shifting a vertex from one part to another, r... |

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Citation Context ...r pairs takes Oðpn þ pjAjÞ time for each scheduling decision. As this decision is made once for each task, the total time complexity of these heuristics is Oðpn 2 þ pnjAjÞ. After Casanova et al. [8], =-=[9]-=-, Giersch et al. [15], [16] proposed several different heuristics. These heuristics have better time complexity and their solution quality is comparable with those of the previous heuristics. Fig. 3 s... |

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Citation Context ...e notion of gain, which is the decrease in the cost of a bipartition by moving a vertex to the other part. Several FM variants were proposed for the generalization of the approach to K-way refinement =-=[22]-=-. 5 PROPOSED REFINEMENT APPROACH Both the effectiveness and efficiency of FM-based heuristics depend on “the smoothness” of the objective function over the neighborhood structure [2], i.e., the neighb... |

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Citation Context ...e improvement. 1 INTRODUCTION IN this work, we investigate the scheduling of independent but file-sharing tasks on heterogeneous master-slave environments. This framework has recently been studied in =-=[7]-=-, [8], [9], [15], [16] for adaptive scheduling of parameter-sweep-like applications in Grid environments. Such applications arise in the Application Level Scheduling (AppLeS) project [7]. In this fram... |

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Citation Context ...hat optimizes a given objective function while preserving a given partitioning constraint. The connectivity-1 metric is frequently used in VLSI circuit partitioning [19] and scientific computing [4], =-=[10]-=-, [23]. The partitioning objective in this metric is the minimization of CutSizeð Þ, which is given as: CutSizeð Þ X wðnkÞð k 1Þ; ð1Þ nk2N where wðnkÞ denotes the weight of net nk. The partitioning c... |

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Citation Context ...ion that optimizes a given objective function while preserving a given partitioning constraint. The connectivity-1 metric is frequently used in VLSI circuit partitioning [19] and scientific computing =-=[4]-=-, [10], [23]. The partitioning objective in this metric is the minimization of CutSizeð Þ, which is given as: CutSizeð Þ X wðnkÞð k 1Þ; ð1Þ nk2N where wðnkÞ denotes the weight of net nk. The partitio... |

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Citation Context ...inconsistent. We believe that an inconsistent ETC matrix is a better model for the Grid system since Grid contains very heterogeneous computing resources with different task execution characteristics =-=[1]-=-. 2.3 Cost Model The cost of a schedule is the turnaround time, which is the parallel execution time of the application on the computing environment. The schedule can be considered as a timeline which... |

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Citation Context ...ted from [15], [16]) and (b) clustered (adapted from [8], [9]). 2.2 Heterogeneous Computing Model The target computing platform is a heterogeneous system based on the well-known master-slave paradigm =-=[5]-=-. In this paradigm, there exists a master/server as a repository for all files and a set Pfp1;p2; ...;ppg of p slaves/processors. Each processor can be any computing system from a single processor wo... |

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Citation Context ...timizes a given objective function while preserving a given partitioning constraint. The connectivity-1 metric is frequently used in VLSI circuit partitioning [19] and scientific computing [4], [10], =-=[23]-=-. The partitioning objective in this metric is the minimization of CutSizeð Þ, which is given as: CutSizeð Þ X wðnkÞð k 1Þ; ð1Þ nk2N where wðnkÞ denotes the weight of net nk. The partitioning constra... |

17 | Scheduling tasks sharing files on heterogeneous master-slave platforms
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...1 INTRODUCTION IN this work, we investigate the scheduling of independent but file-sharing tasks on heterogeneous master-slave environments. This framework has recently been studied in [7], [8], [9], =-=[15]-=-, [16] for adaptive scheduling of parameter-sweep-like applications in Grid environments. Such applications arise in the Application Level Scheduling (AppLeS) project [7]. In this framework, input fil... |

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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... log n þ pnjAjÞ. 3.2 Flaws The task-processor pair selection according to the momentary completion time values is the greedy decision criterion Fig. 3. Structure of heuristics by Giersch et al. [15], =-=[16]-=-.s4 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON PARALLEL AND DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS, VOL. 17, NO. 8, AUGUST 2006 TABLE 2 Definitions for the Heuristics Proposed by Giersch et al. [15], [16] commonly used in all existing constr... |

6 | GridG: Generating realistic computational grids
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ions was displayed in the following tables as the performance of the respective heuristic for a specific r ratio. 8.1 Heterogeneous Master-Slave Platform Creation We used the GridG topology generator =-=[20]-=- for creating a heterogeneous master-slave platform with p 32 processors as follows: We created a Grid topology with 32 hosts and nine routers. One of the routers was randomly selected as the server... |

2 |
Performance Schedulers,” The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... before each schedule generation period. Task scheduling in such heterogeneous environments is harder than scheduling in homogeneous ones and it is an important problem for today’s computational Grid =-=[14]-=- which contains highly heterogeneous environments. In a heterogeneous environment, highly interacting tasks which need the same files as inputs might have different favorite processors so that it may ... |

1 |
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Citation Context ...alues of the tasks are stored in an n p expected time to compute the (ETC) matrix. The ETC matrix can be consistent or inconsistent in terms of the relation between execution times of different tasks =-=[3]-=-. In a consistent ETC matrix, if a processor executes a task ti faster than another processor, then it executes all other tasks faster than that processor. If there is no such relation between executi... |

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Citation Context ...etween parts or shifting a vertex from one part to another, respectively. These heuristics have been widely used for graph/hypergraph partitioning by the VLSI [19] and scientific computing [4], [10], =-=[11]-=-, [17], [23] communities because of their effectiveness with good-quality results and efficiency with short runtimes. The FM algorithm, starting from an initial bipartition, performs a number of passe... |