## A Framework for Hybrid and Analogical Planning (2004)

Venue: | Intelligent Techniques for Planning, chapter II |

Citations: | 1 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Garagnani04aframework,

author = {Max Garagnani},

title = {A Framework for Hybrid and Analogical Planning},

booktitle = {Intelligent Techniques for Planning, chapter II},

year = {2004},

pages = {35--88},

publisher = {Idea Group, Inc}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

This chapter describes a model and an underlying theoretical framework for hybrid planning. Modern planning domain-description formalisms are based on purely sentential languages. Sentential representations produce problem encodings that often require the system to carry out an unnecessary amount of trivial deductions, preventing it from concentrating all the computational effort on the actual search for a plan and leading to a loss in performances. This chapter illustrates how techniques from the area of knowledge representation and reasoning can be adopted to develop more efficient domain-description languages. In particular, experimental evidence suggests that the adoption of analogical descriptions can lead to significant improvements in planning performance. Although often more efficient, however, analogical representations are generally less expressive than sentential ones. The hybrid approach proposed here provides a framework in which sentential and analogical descriptions can be integrated and used interchangeably, thereby overcoming the limitations and exploiting the advantages of both paradigms.

### Citations

955 | Fast planning through planning graph analysis
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... when two actions can be executed simultaneously (e.g., see the conditions for mutually exclusive actions in PDDL2.1 (Fox & Long, 2003)). Indeed, a significant amount of effort is spent by Graphplan (=-=Blum & Furst, 1997-=-) and similar systems to calculate all such pairs of “mut-ex” operators. In contrast, analogical descriptions appear to allow a much simpler check: two operators can be executed simultaneously if they... |

450 |
Model Theory
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...a logical atom iff p∈P and ∀ i∈{1,…n}, ci is a term • q(t1,…, tn) is a numeric atom iff q∈P and ∀ i∈{1,…n}, ti is a PNE or a NE The symbols of L are given an interpretation in the domain of interest (=-=Chang & Keisler, 1977-=-; Section 1.3). In particular, the interpretation function g will map each constant symbol c∈C to a distinct entity g(c)=i∈I, each m-placed logical function symbol ƒ∈F to a function g(ƒ) = ƒ′: I m → ℜ... |

384 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...regean (Kulpa, 1994)) representations has recently lead to a resurgence of interest in “non-linguistic” descriptions, also referred to as diagrammatic (Larkin & Simon, 1987), analogical (Sloman 1975; =-=Dretske, 1981-=-), homomorphic (Barwise & Etchemendy, 1995), direct (Levesque, 1986) and model-based (Barr & Feigembaum, 1981; Halpern & Vardi, 1991). Let us analyse the general characteristics of these representatio... |

195 |
Heterogeneous Logic
- Barwise, Etchemendy
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ntations has recently lead to a resurgence of interest in “non-linguistic” descriptions, also referred to as diagrammatic (Larkin & Simon, 1987), analogical (Sloman 1975; Dretske, 1981), homomorphic (=-=Barwise & Etchemendy, 1995-=-), direct (Levesque, 1986) and model-based (Barr & Feigembaum, 1981; Halpern & Vardi, 1991). Let us analyse the general characteristics of these representations and the elements that allow discriminat... |

127 | The Handbook of - Barr, Feigenbaum - 1981 |

116 |
On Representations of Problems of Reasoning about Actions
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- 1968
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ptions (e.g., (Halpern & Vardi, 1991; Levesque, 1986; Khardon, 1996)). In particular, analogical and diagrammatic representations have long been of interest to the knowledge representation community (=-=Amarel, 1968-=-; Sloman, 1975; Hayes, 1985) (see (Kulpa, 1994) for a review, and (Glasgow et al., 1995) for a representative collection). In order to clarify the main ideas behind such descriptions, we begin with an... |

114 | Encoding planning problems in nonmonotonic logic programs - Dimopoulos, Nebel, et al. - 1997 |

23 |
DDL.1: a formal description of a constraint representation language for physical domains
- Cesta, Oddi
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...come expressively equivalent to a propositional planning language. It remains to be seen whether such formalism is generally more efficient than other, sentential or state-variable based ones (e.g., (=-=Cesta & Oddi, 1996-=-)). Indeed, in spite of its expressiveness, it appears unlikely that even an extended setGraph formalism would be able to describe all problems more efficiently than any other sentential representatio... |

9 |
Computers, visualization, and the nature of reasoning
- Barwise, Etchemendy
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... associated with the execution of an action, and, hence, required by a system that must be able to plan. Similar considerations also apply to works on heterogeneous (hybrid) representations, such as (=-=Barwise & Etchemendy, 1998-=-; Swoboda & Allwein, 2002). The work of Forbus (1995) and colleagues (Forbus et al., 1987, 1991) on qualitative spatial reasoning is also relevant in this context. Forbus proposes a Metric Diagram/Pla... |

8 | GPT meets PSR
- Bonet, Thiébaux
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...omain axioms (Cook & Liu, 2003). If the target domain considered is a real application, the model is likely to contain tens of axioms and very large numbers of objects (e.g., see the “PSR” domain in (=-=Bonet & Thiébeaux, 2003-=-)). In order to address the problem of planning in presence of domain axioms, some researchers (e.g., (Gazen & Knoblock, 1997; Davidson & Garagnani, 2002; Thiébeaux et al., 2003)) have developed pre-p... |

6 | Pre-processing Planning Domains Containing Language Axioms
- Davidson, Garagnani
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of steps required is O(m k ). While in some simple cases (like this one) the number of deductions can be reduced by recalculating only those instances strictly affected by the action (Pednault, 1989; =-=Davidson & Garagnani, 2002-=-), a forward-search algorithm able to deal with any arbitrary set of domain axioms may have to carry out, in the worst case, a number of steps exponential in the size of the domain description (if the... |

5 | A complete axiomatization for blocks world
- Cook, Liu
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...events and actions: planning involves reasoning about a simplified version of the real world. However, even very simple, toy-like domains such as BW can already involve several complex domain axioms (=-=Cook & Liu, 2003-=-). If the target domain considered is a real application, the model is likely to contain tens of axioms and very large numbers of objects (e.g., see the “PSR” domain in (Bonet & Thiébeaux, 2003)). In ... |