## On the Accuracy of Embeddings for Internet Coordinate Systems (2005)

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Venue: | In IMC |

Citations: | 87 - 6 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Lua05onthe,

author = {Eng Keong Lua and Timothy Griffin and Marcelo Pias and Han Zheng and Jon Crowcroft},

title = {On the Accuracy of Embeddings for Internet Coordinate Systems},

booktitle = {In IMC},

year = {2005}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

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### Abstract

Internet coordinate systems embed Round-Trip-Times (RTTs) between Internet nodes into some geometric space so that unmeasured RTTs can be estimated using distance computation in that space. If accurate, such techniques would allow us to predict Internet RTTs without extensive measurements. The published techniques appear to work very well when accuracy is measured using metrics such as absolute relative error. Our main observation is that absolute relative error tells us very little about the quality of an embedding as experienced by a user. We define several new accuracy metrics that attempt to quantify various aspects of user-oriented quality. Evaluation of current Internet coordinate systems using our new metrics indicates that their quality is not as high as that suggested by the use of absolute relative error.

### Citations

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Citation Context ...r nodes. King [9] data: This data set contains 1740 Internet DNS servers RTT traces based on the King collection method. We selected the following data sets from the BBS (Euclidean) [18] work. Waxman =-=[22]-=- Network Topology: This data set contains undirected fixed network topologies of 600 nodes and the edge weights are generated with random uniform distribution in the range of [1, 1000]. The edge weigh... |

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Citation Context ...trics. Section 7 concludes with some topics for future work. 2 A Brief Survey of Embedding Techniques Among the recently described Internet coordinate systems are the Global Network Positioning (GNP) =-=[16]-=-, Lighthouses [17], Virtual Landmarks [21], Internet Coordinate System (ICS) [11], Matrix Factorization [15], Practical Internet Coordinates (PIC) [7], Vivaldi [8], Big Bang Simulation (BBS) in Euclid... |

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Citation Context ...results with our new metrics. In Section 5, we conducted experiments using our PlanetLab data sets and new accuracy metrics, but on other techniques that are based on numerical minimization — Vivaldi =-=[8]-=- and Big Bang Simulation (BBS) [18–20]. In Section 6, we revisit these previously published experiments and use their data sets to re-evaluate their accuracy with our new accuracy metrics. Section 7 c... |

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Citation Context ...ctivity, a Dijkstra algorithm is performed to find the shortest path distance matrix. Network topologies consist of the first 50 nodes chosen among the 600 nodes in the Waxman Network. BarabásiAlbert =-=[4, 6]-=- (BA) Network Topology (considered to follow the PowerLaw): This data set consists of undirected fixed network topologies of 1000 network nodes and the edge weights are generated with random uniform d... |

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Citation Context ...systems are the Global Network Positioning (GNP) [16], Lighthouses [17], Virtual Landmarks [21], Internet Coordinate System (ICS) [11], Matrix Factorization [15], Practical Internet Coordinates (PIC) =-=[7]-=-, Vivaldi [8], Big Bang Simulation (BBS) in Euclidean space [18], and BBS in Hyperbolic space [19, 20]. Basically, Internet coordinate systems comprise of two categories of network embeddings of finit... |

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Citation Context ...s for future work. 2 A Brief Survey of Embedding Techniques Among the recently described Internet coordinate systems are the Global Network Positioning (GNP) [16], Lighthouses [17], Virtual Landmarks =-=[21]-=-, Internet Coordinate System (ICS) [11], Matrix Factorization [15], Practical Internet Coordinates (PIC) [7], Vivaldi [8], Big Bang Simulation (BBS) in Euclidean space [18], and BBS in Hyperbolic spac... |

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Citation Context ...oncludes with some topics for future work. 2 A Brief Survey of Embedding Techniques Among the recently described Internet coordinate systems are the Global Network Positioning (GNP) [16], Lighthouses =-=[17]-=-, Virtual Landmarks [21], Internet Coordinate System (ICS) [11], Matrix Factorization [15], Practical Internet Coordinates (PIC) [7], Vivaldi [8], Big Bang Simulation (BBS) in Euclidean space [18], an... |

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Citation Context ...ses [17], Virtual Landmarks [21], Internet Coordinate System (ICS) [11], Matrix Factorization [15], Practical Internet Coordinates (PIC) [7], Vivaldi [8], Big Bang Simulation (BBS) in Euclidean space =-=[18]-=-, and BBS in Hyperbolic space [19, 20]. Basically, Internet coordinate systems comprise of two categories of network embeddings of finite metric space into low dimensional Euclidean or non-Euclidean (... |

118 |
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Citation Context ...f time (not specified in [8]), from the PlanetLab ”ping” collection traces. It is filtered due to some nodes in PlanetLab having security measures restricting ”ping” connection from other nodes. King =-=[9]-=- data: This data set contains 1740 Internet DNS servers RTT traces based on the King collection method. We selected the following data sets from the BBS (Euclidean) [18] work. Waxman [22] Network Topo... |

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Citation Context ...Embedding Techniques Among the recently described Internet coordinate systems are the Global Network Positioning (GNP) [16], Lighthouses [17], Virtual Landmarks [21], Internet Coordinate System (ICS) =-=[11]-=-, Matrix Factorization [15], Practical Internet Coordinates (PIC) [7], Vivaldi [8], Big Bang Simulation (BBS) in Euclidean space [18], and BBS in Hyperbolic space [19, 20]. Basically, Internet coordin... |

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Citation Context ...trix D ′ , and then we removed rows and columns that contained missing entries. This process reduced the distance matrix to 69 × 69 RTTs between sites. Finally, we used the classification proposed in =-=[5]-=- to split D ′ into three sub-matrices of different sizes based on the geographical locations of PlanetLab sites: North America (NA-PL): 44 × 44 distance matrix which contains RTTs between PlanetLab si... |

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Citation Context ...ns do we want to suggest that our new metrics represent a complete or definitive set — they are simply an initial attempt at exploring this space. This paper is complementary to the work presented in =-=[23]-=-, which shows that RTT violations of the triangle inequality are a common, persistent, and widespread consequence of Internet routing policies. We strongly suspect that such violations will degrade ev... |

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Citation Context ...Internet Coordinate System (ICS) [11], Matrix Factorization [15], Practical Internet Coordinates (PIC) [7], Vivaldi [8], Big Bang Simulation (BBS) in Euclidean space [18], and BBS in Hyperbolic space =-=[19, 20]-=-. Basically, Internet coordinate systems comprise of two categories of network embeddings of finite metric space into low dimensional Euclidean or non-Euclidean (e.g. Hyperbolic) space, namely, numeri... |

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Citation Context ...the recently described Internet coordinate systems are the Global Network Positioning (GNP) [16], Lighthouses [17], Virtual Landmarks [21], Internet Coordinate System (ICS) [11], Matrix Factorization =-=[15]-=-, Practical Internet Coordinates (PIC) [7], Vivaldi [8], Big Bang Simulation (BBS) in Euclidean space [18], and BBS in Hyperbolic space [19, 20]. Basically, Internet coordinate systems comprise of two... |

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Citation Context ...Internet Coordinate System (ICS) [11], Matrix Factorization [15], Practical Internet Coordinates (PIC) [7], Vivaldi [8], Big Bang Simulation (BBS) in Euclidean space [18], and BBS in Hyperbolic space =-=[19, 20]-=-. Basically, Internet coordinate systems comprise of two categories of network embeddings of finite metric space into low dimensional Euclidean or non-Euclidean (e.g. Hyperbolic) space, namely, numeri... |