## Local Metrical and Global Topological Maps in the Hybrid Spatial Semantic Hierarchy (2004)

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Venue: | in IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics & Automation (ICRA-04 |

Citations: | 52 - 16 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Kuipers04localmetrical,

author = {Benjamin Kuipers and Joseph Modayil and Patrick Beeson and Matt Macmahon and Francesco Savelli},

title = {Local Metrical and Global Topological Maps in the Hybrid Spatial Semantic Hierarchy},

booktitle = {in IEEE Int. Conf. on Robotics & Automation (ICRA-04},

year = {2004},

pages = {4845--4851}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

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### Abstract

Topological and metrical methods for representing spatial knowledge have complementary strengths. We present a hybrid extension to the Spatial Semantic Hierarchy that combines their strengths and avoids their weaknesses. Metrical SLAM methods are used to build local maps of small-scale space within the sensory horizon of the agent, while topological methods are used to represent the structure of large-scale space. We describe how a local perceptual map is analyzed to identify a local topology description and is abstracted to a topological place. The mapbuilding method creates a set of topological map hypotheses that are consistent with travel experience. The set of maps is guaranteed under reasonable assumptions to include the correct map. We demonstrate the method on a real environment with multiple nested large-scale loops.

### Citations

429 | A robot exploration and mapping strategy based on a semantic hierarchy of spatial representations
- Kuipers, Byun
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...in which D �= A. After one more exploration step, D = A is refuted by observing E �= B. The structural ambiguity between F = A and F �= A is resolved because F = A implies the simplest consisten=-=t map [3]. In (-=-b), the structural ambiguity is between three map hypotheses: E = A, E = B and E �= A ∧ E �= B. More exploration will resolve these alternatives similarly. within a single frame of reference [4]... |

276 |
Learning metric-topological maps for indoor mobile robot navigation
- Thrun
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the concept of isovists [18]. • A geometric criterion for identifying gateways in corridors is the medial axis of free space in the LPM. A gateway corresponds to a “constriction” (or “critica=-=l line” [19]-=-) along a medial axis edge, where the distance between the edge and obstacles is a local minimum near a larger maximum. This is the criterion used in the examples in Figures 3 and 5. The local percept... |

274 | The Spatial Semantic Hierarchy
- Kuipers
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...t ways the loop may have closed, then there is a structural ambiguity between alternate map hypotheses (Figure 1). We present a hybrid mapping method that extends the Spatial Semantic Hierarchy (SSH) =-=[2]-=- to combine the strengths of metrical mapping methods in local regions with the ability of topological mapping methods to resolve global structural ambiguity. We describe the results of a real-world m... |

190 | Topological simultaneous localization and mapping (slam): Toward exact localization without explicit localization
- Choset, Nagatani
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...have a particle in the distribution that adequately approximates the correct map. B. Topological Mapping A topological map is a concise description of the largescale structure of the environment [3], =-=[11]-=-. It compactly describes the environment as a collection of places linked by paths. When large loops in the environment result in structural ambiguity, a topological representation can concisely repre... |

176 | Probabilistic algorithms in robotics
- Thrun
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...[3]. In (b), the structural ambiguity is between three map hypotheses: E = A, E = B and E �= A ∧ E �= B. More exploration will resolve these alternatives similarly. within a single frame of refe=-=rence [4]-=-. Many of these methods are accurate and reliable when doing online incremental localization within local neighborhoods. In local regions, many correspondence problems, such as the closing of large lo... |

176 | FastSLAM 2.0: An improved particle filtering algorithm for simultaneous localization and mapping that provably converges - Montemerlo, Koller, et al. - 2003 |

152 | An atlas framework for scalable mapping
- Bosse, Newman, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tural ambiguity. Some assume correct data association in order to simplify the mapping problem [5], [6]. Others accept false negative place matches, mislabeling a previously seen place as a new place =-=[7]-=-. This can eliminate the possibility of finding the correct map. To avoid premature commitment to a possibly-incorrect maximum likelihood map hypothesis, some particle-filtering methods explicitly rep... |

125 | Thin junction tree filters for simultaneous localization and mapping
- Paskin
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... results. However, on closer examination, none of these have solved the problem of large-scale structural ambiguity. Some assume correct data association in order to simplify the mapping problem [5], =-=[6]-=-. Others accept false negative place matches, mislabeling a previously seen place as a new place [7]. This can eliminate the possibility of finding the correct map. To avoid premature commitment to a ... |

70 | Towards a general theory of topological maps
- Remolina, Kuipers
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... is that the process of generating possible topological maps from experience and testing them for consistency can provide formal guarantees that the correct map is generated and never discarded [12], =-=[13]-=-. A logic-based theory of topological maps makes explicit the assumptions upon which those guarantees depend. C. A Hybrid Approach Metrical and topological representations for space are very different... |

70 |
Prototypes, location, and associative networks (PLAN): Toward a uniWed theory of cognitive mapping
- Chown, Kaplan, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n an LPM can be tagged with the control law applicability conditions they satisfy, allowing gateways to be defined as boundaries between regions of different control law applicability. • Chown et al=-=. [17] d-=-efine gateways as the locations of major changes in visibility. “In buildings, these [gateways] are typically doorways. . . . Therefore, a gateway occurs where there is at least a partial visual sep... |

59 | Monte Carlo localization with mixture proposal distribution
- Thrun, Fox, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... a scrolling map of the robot’s immediate surround, for local motion planning and obstacle avoidance. Our current implementation of the LPM is an occupancy grid created using a particle filter metho=-=d [14]-=-, but any accurate and reliable local metrical mapping algorithm will suffice. To create a hybrid mapping method, using a metrical representation for small-scale space and a topological representation... |

54 | DP-SLAM: Fast, Robust Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Without Predetermined Landmarks," presented at
- Eliazar, Parr
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...avoid premature commitment to a possibly-incorrect maximum likelihood map hypothesis, some particle-filtering methods explicitly represent a distribution of belief over the space of possible maps [8]�=-=��[10]-=-. Intractably large numbers Dsof particles may be required to avoid particle depletion when exploring large loops, resulting in the failure to have a particle in the distribution that adequately appro... |

52 |
A highly efficient fastslam algorithm for generating cyclic maps of largescale environments from raw laser range measurements
- Hähnel, Burgard, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... To avoid premature commitment to a possibly-incorrect maximum likelihood map hypothesis, some particle-filtering methods explicitly represent a distribution of belief over the space of possible maps =-=[8]��-=-�[10]. Intractably large numbers Dsof particles may be required to avoid particle depletion when exploring large loops, resulting in the failure to have a particle in the distribution that adequately ... |

48 | Nested abnormality theories
- Lifschitz
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...s (topological maps) that are consistent with the axioms and the sequence of actions and views observed while exploring. A prioritized circumscription policy (expressed as a nested abnormality theory =-=[16]) specifie-=-s how these logical models are ordered by simplicity.sSuppose the robot performs an action a, resulting in a view v. For each 〈M,x〉 on the fringe of the tree: 1) If M includes 〈x,a,x ′ 〉 and... |

34 | Computing a representation of the local environment
- Yeap, Jefferies
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... generalized cylinder models. The local frames of reference could be relaxed into a single global frame of reference by spreading metrical errors evenly across the topological map. Yeap and Jefferies =-=[21]-=- build maps consisting of adjacent metrical maps of rooms, which are directly connected by gateway-like entities. Bosse et al. [7] link together perceptual maps of a fixed number of landmark features.... |

31 | Using local information in a non-local way for mapping graph-like worlds
- Dudek, Freedman, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tation is that the process of generating possible topological maps from experience and testing them for consistency can provide formal guarantees that the correct map is generated and never discarded =-=[12]-=-, [13]. A logic-based theory of topological maps makes explicit the assumptions upon which those guarantees depend. C. A Hybrid Approach Metrical and topological representations for space are very dif... |

30 | Hybrid simultaneous localization and map building: Closing the loop with multi-hypotheses tracking
- Tomatis, Nourbakhsh, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...niques do reason about structural ambiguity. Kuipers and Byun [3] detect perceptual aliasing and check for possible loop closures by performing physical motion to obtain more evidence. Tomatis et al. =-=[24] u-=-se a probabilistic framework to localize and detect loops. When thesestimate of the robot’s location has two probable hypotheses, the framework assumes it is recreating a previously known portion of... |

19 | Loop-closing and planarity in topological map-building
- Savelli, Kuipers
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...al map model is the correct topological representation of the environment. If we assume planarity of the environment, we can use a more sophisticated version of the topological map-building algorithm =-=[20]-=- that rules out many more models as inconsistent. Here, there are only 46 consistent configurations of the exploration experience, and the circumscription policy produces a single minimal model, which... |

15 |
Exploiting local perceptual models for topological map-building
- Beeson, MacMahon, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... by an IBM Faculty Research Award. M. MacMahon is supported by the Naval Research Laboratory. Thanks to Philip Hendrix for work on visualization software. Portions of this work have been presented in =-=[1]. B -=-A F E D ✫ C ✫ (a) (b) C B A E Fig. 1. Structural Ambiguity Examples. In these street-and-intersection environments, places are explored in alphabetical order and at least one street is long and/or... |

15 | A logical account of causal and topological maps
- Remolina, Kuipers
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...and hill-climbing control laws, moving between and localizing at distinctive states. In the hybrid SSH, localization by hill-climbing is replaced by localization in an LPM. Remolina and Kuipers [13], =-=[15]-=- present a formalization of the SSH framework as a non-monotonic logical theory. The theory contains axioms describing the properties and relationships of actions, views, distinctive states, causal sc... |

15 | Building globally consistent gridmaps from topologies
- Duckett, Saffiotti
- 2000
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... metrical maps of rooms, which are directly connected by gateway-like entities. Bosse et al. [7] link together perceptual maps of a fixed number of landmark features. Similarly, Duckett and Saffiotti =-=[22] con-=-nect overlapping local occupancy grid maps to form a dense topological network. Lankenau et al. [23] create a topological graph of travel paths annotated with metrical maps at the “corners” where ... |

13 | Self-Localization in LargeScale Environments for the Bremen Autonomous Wheelchair
- Lankenau, Röfer, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...gether perceptual maps of a fixed number of landmark features. Similarly, Duckett and Saffiotti [22] connect overlapping local occupancy grid maps to form a dense topological network. Lankenau et al. =-=[23] cre-=-ate a topological graph of travel paths annotated with metrical maps at the “corners” where paths intersect. Most mapping implementations only maintain a single map hypothesis, selected through gr... |

4 |
constant-time
- Leonard, Newman, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ssive results. However, on closer examination, none of these have solved the problem of large-scale structural ambiguity. Some assume correct data association in order to simplify the mapping problem =-=[5]-=-, [6]. Others accept false negative place matches, mislabeling a previously seen place as a new place [7]. This can eliminate the possibility of finding the correct map. To avoid premature commitment ... |

3 |
To take hold of space: isovist fields,” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design
- Benedikt
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...area. At such a place, one has the option of entering the new area or staying in the previous area” (page 32). We believe that these visibility changes can be quantified using the concept of isovist=-=s [18]. • A ge-=-ometric criterion for identifying gateways in corridors is the medial axis of free space in the LPM. A gateway corresponds to a “constriction” (or “critical line” [19]) along a medial axis edg... |

2 |
Loop-closing and planarity
- Savelli, Kuipers
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...al map model is the correct topological representation of the environment. If we assume planarity of the environment, we can use a more sophisticated version of the topological map-building algorithm =-=[20]-=- that rules out many more models as inconsistent. Here, there are only 46 consistent configurations of the exploration experience, and the circumscription policy produces a single minimal model, which... |