## A Cone-Based Distributed Topology-Control Algorithm for Wireless Multi-Hop Networks (2002)

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Venue: | IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking |

Citations: | 39 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Li02acone-based,

author = {Li Li and Joseph Y. Halpern and Paramvir Bahl and Yi-min Wang and Roger Wattenhofer},

title = {A Cone-Based Distributed Topology-Control Algorithm for Wireless Multi-Hop Networks},

journal = {IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking},

year = {2002},

volume = {13},

pages = {147--159}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

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### Abstract

The topology of a wireless multi-hop network can be controlled by varying the transmission power at each node. In this paper, we give a detailed analysis of a cone-based distributed topology control algorithm. This algorithm does not assume that nodes have GPS information available; rather it depends only on directional information. Roughly speaking, the basic idea of the algorithm is that a node u transmits with the minimum power p u,# required to ensure that in every cone of degree # around u, there is some node that u can reach with power p u,# . We show that taking # = 5#/6 is a necessary and su#cient condition to guarantee that network connectivity is preserved. More precisely, if there is a path from s to t when every node communicates at maximum power then, if # 5#/6, there is still a path in the smallest symmetric graph G # containing all edges (u, v) such that u can communicate with v using power p u,# . On the other hand, if # > 5#/6, # This is a revised and extended version of "Analysis of a cone-based topology control algorithm for wireless multi-hop networks", which appeared in Proceedings of ACM Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), 2001, and includes results from "Distributed topology control for power e#cient operation in multihop wireless ad hoc networks", by R. Wattenhofer, L. Li, P. Bahl, and Y. M. Wang, which appeared in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, 2001.

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Citation Context ...lerate. To simulate interference and collision, we choose the WaveLAN-I [25] CSMA/CA MAC protocol. Topology control does not by itself provide a routing; a routing protocol is nededed. We choose AODV =-=[17]-=- in our simulation. To simulate the network application tra#c, we use the following application scenario. We choose 60 connections, i.e. 60 source-destination pairs, at random (with replacement, so th... |

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Citation Context ...ndesirable to have nodes transmit with maximum power for two reasons. First, since the power required to transmit between nodes increases as the nth power of the distance between them, for some n # 2 =-=[21]-=-, it may require less power for a node u to relay messages through a series of intermediate nodes to v than to transmit directly to v. Second, the greater the power with which a node transmits, the gr... |

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Citation Context ...nd Li [8] analyze the e#ect of adjusting transmission power to reduce interference and hence achieve higher throughput as compared to schemes that use fixed transmission power [23]. Heinzelman et al. =-=[7]-=- describe an adaptive clustering-based routing protocol that maximizes network lifetime by randomly rotating the role of percluster local base stations (cluster-head) among nodes with higher energy re... |

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Citation Context ...ssed. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the e#ectiveness of the algorithm and the optimizations. 1 Introduction Multi-hop wireless networks, such as radio networks [11], ad-hoc networks =-=[16]-=-, and sensor networks [4, 18], are networks where communication between two nodes may go through multiple consecutive wireless links. Unlike wired networks, which typically have a fixed network topolo... |

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Citation Context ...rithm that does topology control using heuristics based on a Delauney triangulation of the graph. There seems to be no guarantee that the heuristics preserve connectivity. Ramanathan and Rosales-Hain =-=[20]-=- describe a centralized spanning tree algorithm for achieving connected and biconnected static networks, while minimizing the maximum transmission power. (They also describe distributed algorithms tha... |

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Citation Context ...roughput. They do this through power control of unicast packets, but make no attempt at reducing the power consumption of broadcast packets. After the initial publication of our results on CBTC [14], =-=[27]-=-, there appeared a number of papers proposing different localized topology-control algorithms [10], [26], [28]. CBTC was the first algorithm that simultaneously achieved a variety of useful properties... |

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Citation Context ...lthough it does not deal directly with topology control, the notion of #-graph used in these papers bears some resemblance to the cone-based idea described in this paper. Relative neighborhood graphs =-=[24]-=- and their relatives (such as Gabriel graphs, or G # graphs [10]) are similar in spirit to the graphs produced by the cone-based algorithm. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 pre... |

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Citation Context ...ion of #-graph used in these papers bears some resemblance to the cone-based idea described in this paper. Relative neighborhood graphs [24] and their relatives (such as Gabriel graphs, or G # graphs =-=[10]-=-) are similar in spirit to the graphs produced by the cone-based algorithm. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents the basic cone-based algorithm and shows that # = 5#/6 is ... |

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Citation Context ...ith higher energy reserves. Chen et al. [3] and Xu et al. [27] propose methods to conserve energy and increase network lifetime by turning o# redundant nodes. Finally, Wu et al. [26] and Monks et al. =-=[26, 15]-=- describe their power controlled MAC protocols to reduce energy consumptions and increase throughput. They do this through power control of unicast packets, but make no attempt at reducing the power c... |

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Citation Context ...and increase throughput. They do this through power control of unicast packets, but make no attempt at reducing the power consumption of broadcast packets. In a di#erent vein is the work described in =-=[6, 12]-=-; although it does not deal directly with topology control, the notion of #-graph used in these papers bears some resemblance to the cone-based idea described in this paper. Relative neighborhood grap... |

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Citation Context ... guaranteed to preserve connectivity.) Rodoplu and Meng [22] propose a distributed position-based topology control algorithm that preserves connectivity; their algorithm is improved by Li and Halpern =-=[14]-=-. Other researchers working in the field of packet radio networks, wireless ad hoc networks, and sensor networks have also considered the issue of power e#ciency and network lifetime, but have taken d... |

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Citation Context ...ynamic reconfiguration and asynchronous operations. There are a number of other papers in the literature on topology control; as we said earlier, all assume that position information is available. Hu =-=[9]-=- describes an algorithm that does topology control using heuristics based on a Delauney triangulation of the graph. There seems to be no guarantee that the heuristics preserve connectivity. Ramanathan... |

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Citation Context ...ed to reach all of ’s neighbors is used. We do not use different power levels for different neighbors because there is a delay associated with changing power levels in practice (in the order of 10 ms =-=[5]-=- for certain wireless radio hardware), which some applications may not be able to tolerate. To simulate interference and collision, we choose the WaveLAN-I [25] CSMA/CA MAC protocol. Since topology co... |

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Citation Context ...er consumption of broadcast packets. After the initial publication of our results on CBTC [14], [27], there appeared a number of papers proposing different localized topology-control algorithms [10], =-=[26]-=-, [28]. CBTC was the first algorithm that simultaneously achieved a variety of useful properties, such as symmetry, sparseness, and good routes; some of the recent topology also aim to simultaneously ... |

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Citation Context ...sumption of broadcast packets. After the initial publication of our results on CBTC [14], [27], there appeared a number of papers proposing different localized topology-control algorithms [10], [26], =-=[28]-=-. CBTC was the first algorithm that simultaneously achieved a variety of useful properties, such as symmetry, sparseness, and good routes; some of the recent topology also aim to simultaneously achiev... |

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Citation Context ...atisfying these three properties that minimizes the amount of power that a node needs to use to communicate with all its neighbors. 1 Directed links complicate the design of routing and MAC protocols =-=[19]-=-.s148 IEEE/ACM TRANSACTIONS ON NETWORKING, VOL. 13, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2005 Furthermore, for a topology control algorithm to be useful in practice, it must be possible for each node in the network to con... |

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Citation Context ...pology control is to design power-e#cient algorithms that maintain network connectivity and optimize performance metrics such as network lifetime and throughput. As pointed out by Chandrakasan et. al =-=[2]-=-, network protocols that minimize energy consumption are key to the successful usage of wireless sensor networks. To simplify deployment and reconfiguration in the presence of failures and mobility, d... |

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Citation Context ...ghbors because there is a delay associated with changing power levels in practice, which some applications may not be able to tolerate. To simulate interference and collision, we choose the WaveLAN-I =-=[25]-=- CSMA/CA MAC protocol. Topology control does not by itself provide a routing; a routing protocol is nededed. We choose AODV [17] in our simulation. To simulate the network application tra#c, we use th... |

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Citation Context ...re presented to demonstrate the e#ectiveness of the algorithm and the optimizations. 1 Introduction Multi-hop wireless networks, such as radio networks [11], ad-hoc networks [16], and sensor networks =-=[4, 18]-=-, are networks where communication between two nodes may go through multiple consecutive wireless links. Unlike wired networks, which typically have a fixed network topology (except in case of failure... |

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Citation Context ...ll be no network partitions due to insu#cient transmission power. 5.1 Simulation Environment The topology-control algorithms---CBTC, SMECN and MaxPower---are implemented in the ns-2 network simulator =-=[19]-=-, using the wireless extension developed at Carnegie Mellon [5]. We generated 20 random networks, each with 200 nodes. Each node has a maximum transmission range of 500 meters and initial energy of 0.... |

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Citation Context ...e clustering-based routing protocol that maximizes network lifetime by randomly rotating the role of percluster local base stations (cluster-head) among nodes with higher energy reserves. Chen et al. =-=[3]-=- and Xu et al. [27] propose methods to conserve energy and increase network lifetime by turning o# redundant nodes. Finally, Wu et al. [26] and Monks et al. [26, 15] describe their power controlled MA... |

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Citation Context .... 5.1 Simulation Environment The topology-control algorithms---CBTC, SMECN and MaxPower---are implemented in the ns-2 network simulator [19], using the wireless extension developed at Carnegie Mellon =-=[5]-=-. We generated 20 random networks, each with 200 nodes. Each node has a maximum transmission range of 500 meters and initial energy of 0.5 Joule. The nodes are placed uniformly at random in a rectangu... |

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Citation Context ...evels in practice (in the order of 10 ms [5] for certain wireless radio hardware), which some applications may not be able to tolerate. To simulate interference and collision, we choose the WaveLAN-I =-=[25]-=- CSMA/CA MAC protocol. Since topology control by itself does not provide routing, we used the AODV [17] routing protocol in our simulation. To simulate the network application traffic, we use the foll... |

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Citation Context ...and increase throughput. They do this through power control of unicast packets, but make no attempt at reducing the power consumption of broadcast packets. In a di#erent vein is the work described in =-=[6, 12]-=-; although it does not deal directly with topology control, the notion of #-graph used in these papers bears some resemblance to the cone-based idea described in this paper. Relative neighborhood grap... |

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Citation Context ...er-head) among nodes with higher energy reserves. Chen et al. [3] and Xu et al. [27] propose methods to conserve energy and increase network lifetime by turning o# redundant nodes. Finally, Wu et al. =-=[26]-=- and Monks et al. [26, 15] describe their power controlled MAC protocols to reduce energy consumptions and increase throughput. They do this through power control of unicast packets, but make no attem... |

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Citation Context ...ower. A. Simulation Environment The topology-control algorithms—CBTC, SMECN, and MaxPower—are implemented in the ns-2 network simulator [20], using the wireless extension developed at Carnegie Mellon =-=[6]-=-. We generated 20 random networks, each with 200 nodes. Each node has a maximum transmission range of 500 meters and initial energy of 0.5 Joule. The nodes are placed uniformly at random in a rectangu... |