## ARIES: A Rearrangeable Inexpensive Edge-based On-line Steiner Algorithm (1995)

### Download From

IEEE### Download Links

- [ftp.cse.ucsc.edu]
- [ftp.cse.ucsc.edu]
- [ftp.cse.ucsc.edu]
- [ftp.cse.ucsc.edu]
- DBLP

### Other Repositories/Bibliography

Venue: | IEEE Journal of Selected Areas in Communications |

Citations: | 52 - 1 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Bauer95aries:a,

author = {Fred Bauer and Anujan Varma},

title = {ARIES: A Rearrangeable Inexpensive Edge-based On-line Steiner Algorithm},

journal = {IEEE Journal of Selected Areas in Communications},

year = {1995},

volume = {15},

pages = {382--397}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

In this paper, we propose and evaluate ARIES, a heuristic for updating multicast trees dynamically in large point-to-point networks. The algorithm is based on monitoring the accumulated damage to the multicast tree within local regions of the tree as nodes are added and deleted, and triggering a rearrangement when the number of changes within a connected subtree crosses a set threshold. We derive an analytical upper-bound on the competitiveness of the algorithm. We also present simulation results to compare the average-case performance of the algorithm with two other known algorithms for the dynamic multicast problem, GREEDY and EBA (Edge-Bounded Algorithm). Our results show that ARIES provides the best balance among competitiveness, computational effort, and changes in the multicast tree after each update. Keywords: multicast algorithms, on-line Steiner problem, rearrangeable multicast algorithms. 1 Introduction Many future applications of computer networks such as distance educati...

### Citations

984 | Multicast routing in datagram internetworks and extended LANS - Deering, Cheriton - 1990 |

639 |
Routing of multipoint connections
- Waxman
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pdate. We know, however, that the Steiner problem in graphs is NP-complete and no such ideal algorithm exists that runs in polynomial time. The on-line multicast problem was first presented by Waxman =-=[15]-=- and has received little attention since [9], [16]. We present a new heuristic for the on-line Steiner problem, balancing heuristic run-time against competitiveness, that is, the ratio between the cos... |

483 | The PIM architecture for wide-area multicast routing - Deering, Estrin, et al. - 1996 |

349 |
The Steiner Tree Problem
- Hwang, Richards, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ulticast groups. Previous authors have established that determining an optimal multicast tree for a static multicast group may be modeled as the NP-complete Steiner problem in networks [4], [5], [6], =-=[8]-=-, [17]. Consequently. its explicit solutions are prohibitively expensive. For example, two popular explicit algorithms, the spanning tree enumeration algorithm This research is supported by the Advanc... |

297 | Core based trees (CBT) and architecture for scalable inter-domain multicast routing - Ballardie, Francis, et al. - 1993 |

224 |
An approximate solution for the Steiner problem in graphs
- Takahashi, Matsuyama
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...graph and p the number of multicast members. A number of good, inexpensive heuristics exist for the Steiner problem in networks and have been reviewed extensively elsewhere [2], [6], [8], [11], [12], =-=[13]-=-, [14], [17]. This paper addresses the problem of modifying an existing multicast tree when new members enter or existing members leave the multicast group. The problem of updating the multicast tree ... |

150 |
Steiner problem in networks: A survey
- Winter
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ast groups. Previous authors have established that determining an optimal multicast tree for a static multicast group may be modeled as the NP-complete Steiner problem in networks [4], [5], [6], [8], =-=[17]-=-. Consequently. its explicit solutions are prohibitively expensive. For example, two popular explicit algorithms, the spanning tree enumeration algorithm This research is supported by the Advanced Res... |

143 |
Dynamic Steiner tree problem
- Imase, Waxman
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...blem in graphs is NP-complete and no such ideal algorithm exists that runs in polynomial time. The on-line multicast problem was first presented by Waxman [15] and has received little attention since =-=[9]-=-, [16]. We present a new heuristic for the on-line Steiner problem, balancing heuristic run-time against competitiveness, that is, the ratio between the cost of the heuristic tree and the cost of an o... |

115 | How bad is naive multicast routing
- Doar, Leslie
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ons, each request was presented to the network only after the previous request was completely serviced. The 50 test graphs were generated to resemble real networks in a manner similar to that of Doar =-=[7]-=-. Each of the 200 nodes is distributed across a Cartesian coordinate plane with minimum and maximum coordinates (0; 0) and (400; 400), creating a forest of 200 nodes spread across this plane. The node... |

88 |
Routing to multiple destinations in computer networks
- Kumar, Jaffe
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mic multicast groups. Previous authors have established that determining an optimal multicast tree for a static multicast group may be modeled as the NP-complete Steiner problem in networks [4], [5], =-=[6]-=-, [8], [17]. Consequently. its explicit solutions are prohibitively expensive. For example, two popular explicit algorithms, the spanning tree enumeration algorithm This research is supported by the A... |

44 | Degree-constrained multicasting in point-to-point networks
- Bauer, Varma
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ast tree to accommodate membership changes as nodes join and leave the multicast session. While much has been written on the subject of establishing a static multicast tree in point-to-point networks =-=[2]-=-, [5], [11], algorithms to modify an existing multicast tree by adding and deleting members is a relatively unexplored area of research. Since many multicast applications are delay-sensitive, the effi... |

41 | Multicasting for multimedia applications
- Kompella, Pasquale, et al.
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...o accommodate membership changes as nodes join and leave the multicast session. While much has been written on the subject of establishing a static multicast tree in point-to-point networks [2], [5], =-=[11]-=-, algorithms to modify an existing multicast tree by adding and deleting members is a relatively unexplored area of research. Since many multicast applications are delay-sensitive, the efficiency of t... |

39 | Distributed algorithms for multicast path setup in data networks
- Bauer, Varma
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...asons. First, it is naturally suited to constructing multicast trees by combining fragments of the tree [2], [12], [17]. Second, the algorithm lends itself to distributed, asynchronous implementation =-=[3]-=-. Finally, K-SPH has been shown to be among the best of Steiner heuristics in terms of the cost of the multicast trees produced in our previous evaluations [2], [3]. Using K-SPH, the rearrangement alg... |

36 |
An algorithm for the Steiner problem in graphs. Networks
- Beasley
- 1984
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e for dynamic multicast groups. Previous authors have established that determining an optimal multicast tree for a static multicast group may be modeled as the NP-complete Steiner problem in networks =-=[4]-=-, [5], [6], [8], [17]. Consequently. its explicit solutions are prohibitively expensive. For example, two popular explicit algorithms, the spanning tree enumeration algorithm This research is supporte... |

27 |
Steiner's problem in graphs: heuristic methods
- Voss
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...and p the number of multicast members. A number of good, inexpensive heuristics exist for the Steiner problem in networks and have been reviewed extensively elsewhere [2], [6], [8], [11], [12], [13], =-=[14]-=-, [17]. This paper addresses the problem of modifying an existing multicast tree when new members enter or existing members leave the multicast group. The problem of updating the multicast tree after ... |

26 | Comparison of dynamic multicast routing algorithms for wide-area packet switched (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) networks - Kadirire - 1995 |

23 |
Path-distance heuristics for the steiner problem in undirected networks. Algorithmica pp 309–327 Wong DF, Leong HW, Liu CL
- Winter, JM
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...n the graph and p the number of multicast members. A number of good, inexpensive heuristics exist for the Steiner problem in networks and have been reviewed extensively elsewhere [2], [6], [8], [11], =-=[12]-=-, [13], [14], [17]. This paper addresses the problem of modifying an existing multicast tree when new members enter or existing members leave the multicast group. The problem of updating the multicast... |

12 |
Greedy algorithms for the on-line Steiner tree and generalized Steiner problems," in Algorithms and data structures
- Westbrook, Yan
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...dating the multicast tree after each addition and deletion is known as the on-line multicast problem in networks. This paper focuses on its Steiner equivalent, the on-line Steiner problem in networks =-=[16]-=-. If the sequence of m updates to the multicast group is represented by a request vector R = (r1 ; r2 ; : : : rm ), where each element of R is a request to add or delete a single node, the on-line mul... |

11 |
Graph theoretic models for multicast communications
- Berry
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ree to accommodate membership changes as nodes join and leave the multicast session. While much has been written on the subject of establishing a static multicast tree in point-to-point networks [2], =-=[5]-=-, [11], algorithms to modify an existing multicast tree by adding and deleting members is a relatively unexplored area of research. Since many multicast applications are delay-sensitive, the efficienc... |