## CARABEAMER: A Treatment Planner for a Robotic Radiosurgical System with General Kinematics (1998)

Venue: | Medical Image Analysis |

Citations: | 14 - 5 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Tombropoulos98carabeamer:a,

author = {Rhea Z. Tombropoulos and John R. Adler and Jean-claude Latombe},

title = {CARABEAMER: A Treatment Planner for a Robotic Radiosurgical System with General Kinematics},

journal = {Medical Image Analysis},

year = {1998},

volume = {3},

pages = {3--3}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

: Stereotactic radiosurgery is a minimally invasive procedure that uses a focused beam of radiation as an ablative instrument to destroy brain tumors. To deposit a high dose of radiation in a tumor, while reducing the dose to healthy tissue, a large number of beams are crossfired at the tumor from multiple directions. The treatment planning problem (also called the inverse dosimetry problem) is to compute a set of beams that produces a desired dose distribution. So far, its investigation has focused on the generation of isocenter-based treatments in which the beam axes intersect at a common point, the isocenter. However, this restriction limits the applicability of the treatments to tumors having simple shapes. This paper describes carabeamer, a new treatment planner for a radiosurgical system in which the radiation source can be arbitrarily positioned and oriented by a six-degree-of-freedom manipulator. This planner uses randomized techniques to guess a promising initial set of beams....

### Citations

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Citation Context ...ind a satisfactory set of beams. This observation led us to modify Generate-Beam-Set to produce a greater density of target points where surface curvature is higher. Our planner uses the algorithm in =-=[40]-=- to compute the curvature of a triangulated surface at every vertex. The number of target points picked at random in each triangle then grows with the area of the triangle, as well as with the average... |

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Citation Context ... area relative to the total area of the triangulation. Next, in each triangle, it picks the points at random with uniform distribution [38]. Finally, it uses the point-repulsion technique proposed in =-=[39]-=- to move the points and uniformly space them over the entire tumor surface. The points obtained after those three steps are the target points. (a) (b) (c) T T hot spot T Figure 7: Strategies for choos... |

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Citation Context ...Gamma 1, Carabeamer creates a triangulation between T i and T i+1 . It then triangulates the two polygons T 1 and T r . The triangulation between T i and T i+1 is done using the algorithm proposed in =-=[12]-=-. The triangulations of T 1 and T r are done using the algorithm presented in [32]. But other techniques (producing different triangulations) could have been used as well. As mentioned above, Carabeam... |

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Citation Context ...nd surrounding tissues. This problem has already received considerable attention in the context of conventional radiosurgical systems (for instance, see [6, 13, 15]). These systems, such as the LINAC =-=[19]-=- and the Gamma Current address: Silicon Graphics Inc., 2011 N. Shoreline Blvd., ms. 984, Mountain View, CA 94043-1389. E-mail: rzt@engr.sgi.com y Neurosurgery Department. E-mail: adler@robotics.stanfo... |

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Citation Context ... require the user to specify a set of beams or, in some instances, the locations of a few isocenters from which beams can be derived. They then use optimization techniques, such as linear programming =-=[4, 17, 24, 27]-=-, quadratic programming [21, 22, 33], or simulated annealing [8, 23, 41], to determine the radiation energy to send along each beam to approximate the desired dose distribution as closely as possible.... |

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Citation Context ...ction 7 concludes the paper and suggests areas for future research. The planning techniques implemented in carabeamer are adaptations and extensions of techniques that we have previously presented in =-=[2, 3, 29, 30, 31, 35, 36]-=-. An extensive description of carabeamer and the experimental results obtained with it can be found in [34]. Throughout this paper, we will refer to the physician responsible for developing a treateme... |

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Citation Context ... require the user to specify a set of beams or, in some instances, the locations of a few isocenters from which beams can be derived. They then use optimization techniques, such as linear programming =-=[4, 17, 24, 27]-=-, quadratic programming [21, 22, 33], or simulated annealing [8, 23, 41], to determine the radiation energy to send along each beam to approximate the desired dose distribution as closely as possible.... |

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Citation Context ...lying carabeamer (and the CyberKnife system) to extracranial tumors. One major issue outside the brain is to reliably localize tissue structures. This localization problem can be dealt with for spine =-=[18]-=- and prostate tumors [37]. In those two cases, tissue of interest can be localized relative to nearby bone structures. This led us to experiment with carabeamer on several spine and prostate tumor cas... |

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Citation Context ...], or simulated annealing [8, 23, 41], to determine the radiation energy to send along each beam to approximate the desired dose distribution as closely as possible. A geometric approach presented in =-=[28]-=- sees the critical structures as if they were obstacles obstructing access to and exit from the tumor. As noted in the introduction, isocenter-based planning methods are well adapted to the kinematics... |

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Citation Context ...enter-based treatments, in which the tumor region is first approximated by a collection of spheres. Although the inverse dosimetry problem has been mathematically solved in 2-D for a single isocenter =-=[6, 7, 10, 16]-=-, the problem becomes substantially more complex in 3-D [13], especially in the absence of major symmetries. In that case, most proposed systems require the user to specify a set of beams or, in some ... |

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Citation Context ...ions of a few isocenters from which beams can be derived. They then use optimization techniques, such as linear programming [4, 17, 24, 27], quadratic programming [21, 22, 33], or simulated annealing =-=[8, 23, 41]-=-, to determine the radiation energy to send along each beam to approximate the desired dose distribution as closely as possible. A geometric approach presented in [28] sees the critical structures as ... |

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Citation Context ... given desired dose distribution in the tumor and surrounding tissues. This problem has already received considerable attention in the context of conventional radiosurgical systems (for instance, see =-=[6, 13, 15]-=-). These systems, such as the LINAC [19] and the Gamma Current address: Silicon Graphics Inc., 2011 N. Shoreline Blvd., ms. 984, Mountain View, CA 94043-1389. E-mail: rzt@engr.sgi.com y Neurosurgery D... |

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Citation Context ...in Tsw 1 ; D min Tsw 3 ; D min Tsw 4 ; w 1 + w 2 + w 4sD max T ; w 1 + w 3 + w 4sD max T ; w 2sD max C : Interestingly, the same concept of minimally and maximally covered cells has also been used in =-=[14]-=- to design an efficient assembly planning technique. Solving the obtained set of inequalities for w 1 ; : : : ; wN is a linear programming problem. We solve this problem using the optimization softwar... |

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Citation Context ... require the user to specify a set of beams or, in some instances, the locations of a few isocenters from which beams can be derived. They then use optimization techniques, such as linear programming =-=[4, 17, 24, 27]-=-, quadratic programming [21, 22, 33], or simulated annealing [8, 23, 41], to determine the radiation energy to send along each beam to approximate the desired dose distribution as closely as possible.... |

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Citation Context ...ulates the two polygons T 1 and T r . The triangulation between T i and T i+1 is done using the algorithm proposed in [12]. The triangulations of T 1 and T r are done using the algorithm presented in =-=[32]-=-. But other techniques (producing different triangulations) could have been used as well. As mentioned above, Carabeamer allows the user to define several disjoint regions to represent the tumor. (In ... |

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Citation Context ...ions and extensions of techniques that we have previously presented in [2, 3, 29, 30, 31, 35, 36]. An extensive description of carabeamer and the experimental results obtained with it can be found in =-=[34]-=-. Throughout this paper, we will refer to the physician responsible for developing a treatement plan (hence, to the user of carabeamer) as the neurosurgeon. However, the neurosurgeon works closely wit... |

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Citation Context ...ng the traditional circular collimator shape to modify the beam shape and to produce non-spherical dose distributions (Podgorsak et al., 1988; Colombo et al., 1990; Leavitt et al., 1991; Carol, 1993; =-=Nedzi et al., 1993-=-; Fraass et al., 1995; Gustafsson et al., 1995; Ramani et al., 1995). Such modifications range from simple adjustments to the circular shape of the collimator, using one or more sets of parallel indep... |

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Citation Context ...ction 7 concludes the paper and suggests areas for future research. The planning techniques implemented in carabeamer are adaptations and extensions of techniques that we have previously presented in =-=[2, 3, 29, 30, 31, 35, 36]-=-. An extensive description of carabeamer and the experimental results obtained with it can be found in [34]. Throughout this paper, we will refer to the physician responsible for developing a treateme... |

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Citation Context ...enter-based treatments, in which the tumor region is first approximated by a collection of spheres. Although the inverse dosimetry problem has been mathematically solved in 2-D for a single isocenter =-=[6, 7, 10, 16]-=-, the problem becomes substantially more complex in 3-D [13], especially in the absence of major symmetries. In that case, most proposed systems require the user to specify a set of beams or, in some ... |

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Citation Context ...eams or, in some instances, the locations of a few isocenters from which beams can be derived. They then use optimization techniques, such as linear programming [4, 17, 24, 27], quadratic programming =-=[21, 22, 33]-=-, or simulated annealing [8, 23, 41], to determine the radiation energy to send along each beam to approximate the desired dose distribution as closely as possible. A geometric approach presented in [... |

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Citation Context ... CyberKnife system) to extracranial tumors. One major issue outside the brain is to reliably localize tissue structures. This localization problem can be dealt with for spine [18] and prostate tumors =-=[37]-=-. In those two cases, tissue of interest can be localized relative to nearby bone structures. This led us to experiment with carabeamer on several spine and prostate tumor cases. The challenge with sp... |

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Citation Context ...e discussed at the end of the paper. 1 Introduction Stereotactic radiosurgery is a minimally invasive procedure that uses a focused beam of radiation as an ablative instrument to destroy brain tumors =-=[42]-=-. The beam is produced by a linear accelerator that is moved by a mechanical gantry. To deposit a high dose of radiation in a tumor, while reducing the dose in healthy tissues, a large number of beams... |

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Citation Context ...h conventional LINAC systems, several investigators have experimented with altering the traditional circular collimator shape to modify the beam shape and to produce non-spherical dose distributions (=-=Podgorsak et al., 1988-=-; Colombo et al., 1990; Leavitt et al., 1991; Carol, 1993; Nedzi et al., 1993; Fraass et al., 1995; Gustafsson et al., 1995; Ramani et al., 1995). Such modifications range from simple adjustments to t... |

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Citation Context ... given desired dose distribution in the tumor and surrounding tissues. This problem has already received considerable attention in the context of conventional radiosurgical systems (for instance, see =-=[6, 13, 15]-=-). These systems, such as the LINAC [19] and the Gamma Current address: Silicon Graphics Inc., 2011 N. Shoreline Blvd., ms. 984, Mountain View, CA 94043-1389. E-mail: rzt@engr.sgi.com y Neurosurgery D... |

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Citation Context ... given desired dose distribution in the tumor and surrounding tissues. This problem has already received considerable attention in the context of conventional radiosurgical systems (for instance, see =-=[6, 13, 15]-=-). These systems, such as the LINAC [19] and the Gamma Current address: Silicon Graphics Inc., 2011 N. Shoreline Blvd., ms. 984, Mountain View, CA 94043-1389. E-mail: rzt@engr.sgi.com y Neurosurgery D... |

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Citation Context ...enter-based treatments, in which the tumor region is first approximated by a collection of spheres. Although the inverse dosimetry problem has been mathematically solved in 2-D for a single isocenter =-=[6, 7, 10, 16]-=-, the problem becomes substantially more complex in 3-D [13], especially in the absence of major symmetries. In that case, most proposed systems require the user to specify a set of beams or, in some ... |

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Citation Context ...eams or, in some instances, the locations of a few isocenters from which beams can be derived. They then use optimization techniques, such as linear programming [4, 17, 24, 27], quadratic programming =-=[21, 22, 33]-=-, or simulated annealing [8, 23, 41], to determine the radiation energy to send along each beam to approximate the desired dose distribution as closely as possible. A geometric approach presented in [... |

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Citation Context ...ape to modify the beam shape and to produce non-spherical dose distributions (Podgorsak et al., 1988; Colombo et al., 1990; Leavitt et al., 1991; Carol, 1993; Nedzi et al., 1993; Fraass et al., 1995; =-=Gustafsson et al., 1995-=-; Ramani et al., 1995). Such modifications range from simple adjustments to the circular shape of the collimator, using one or more sets of parallel independent jaws that move in and out, to more elab... |

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Citation Context ...-D shape of the tumor. To achieve that goal better than with conventional systems, a new radiosurgical system, called the CyberKnife, has been developed at the Stanford Medical Center by Accuray, Inc.=-=[1]-=-. In this system, the linear accelerator is moved by a general six-degree-of-freedom manipulator arm. This system, depicted in Figure 2, imposes almost no constraints on the beam configurations. In pa... |

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Citation Context ...ction 7 concludes the paper and suggests areas for future research. The planning techniques implemented in carabeamer are adaptations and extensions of techniques that we have previously presented in =-=[2, 3, 29, 30, 31, 35, 36]-=-. An extensive description of carabeamer and the experimental results obtained with it can be found in [34]. Throughout this paper, we will refer to the physician responsible for developing a treateme... |

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Citation Context ...ormally prove this claim. One can nevertheless notice that similar randomized techniques have also been successfully used to plan collision-free robot motions in high-dimensional configuration spaces =-=[5]-=-. In that case, because obstacles divide the robot's configuration space into only two types of regions (collision and non-collision), it was possible to prove probabilistic completeness, as well as t... |

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Citation Context ...ions of a few isocenters from which beams can be derived. They then use optimization techniques, such as linear programming [4, 17, 24, 27], quadratic programming [21, 22, 33], or simulated annealing =-=[8, 23, 41]-=-, to determine the radiation energy to send along each beam to approximate the desired dose distribution as closely as possible. A geometric approach presented in [28] sees the critical structures as ... |

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