## Digital Neurochip Design (1991)

Venue: | In K. Wojtek Przytula and Viktor K. Prasanna, editors, Digital Parallel Implementations of Neural Networks |

Citations: | 2 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Burr91digitalneurochip,

author = {James B. Burr},

title = {Digital Neurochip Design},

booktitle = {In K. Wojtek Przytula and Viktor K. Prasanna, editors, Digital Parallel Implementations of Neural Networks},

year = {1991},

pages = {223--281},

publisher = {Prentice Hall}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Introduction This chapter describes a methodology for designing digital VLSI neurochips which emphasizes area, power, and performance estimation to facilitate architectural exploration in the early stages of design. It first discusses some key aspects of mapping neural net algorithms onto VLSI architectures. It then introduces a set of circuit level building blocks commonly used in constructing digital nets. It discusses how to estimate chip area, performance, and power consumption in architectures constructed from these blocks, showing how to include technology scaling rules in the estimation process. It concludes with a detailed discussion of a CMOS implementation of a digital Boltzmann machine. 2 Mapping algorithms to architectures An algorithm is a set of tasks to be applied to data in a specified order to transform inputs and internal state to desired outputs. An architecture is a set of resources and interconnections. Mapping algorithms to architectures

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Citation Context ...urces is a hard problem. Joshua Alspector and colleagues have developed an area-efficient technique which they have implemented on their ECLNN chip [4]. They give this subject a thorough treatment in =-=[5]-=-. Our Boltzmann Engine has a limited requirement for noise, which we implement using a shift register with feedback xors tapped off strategic locations. Each such structure generates an uncorrelated p... |

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Citation Context ... incrementally over many cycles. Stochastic techniques Digital Neurochip Design 31 have been applied successfully to Hopfield networks [36], competitive learning networks [17], and Boltzmann machines =-=[6, 4]-=-. Figure 12 shows the two basic operations: multiplication by ANDing pulse streams (P (AB) = P (A)P (B)), and addition by ORing (P (A + B) = P (A)+P (B) \Gamma P (AB)). The P (AB) term in the probabil... |

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Citation Context ...greater logic depths, logic energy dominates. We have found the 8 James B. Burr optimum logic depth for a 32\Theta32 bit multiplier to be just about equal to the propagation delay through a 4:2 adder =-=[13]-=-. At this logic depth, the area penalty is 37%. We have obtained similar results for both array and tree multipliers ranging in size from 4\Theta4 bits to 256\Theta256 bits, and various types of adder... |

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Citation Context ... pass-transistor logic (CPL) offers modest performance, Digital Neurochip Design 11 year what who description 1973 C 2 MOS [62] Clocked CMOS 1980 2phase [48] Nonoverlapping 2-phase clocking 1983 NORA =-=[22]-=- Race-free dynamic CMOS 1987 TSPC-1 [35] True single-phase clocking, version 1 1988 SSPC [46] Safe single-phase clocking 1989 TSPC-2 [69] True single-phase clocking, version 2 Table 3: Clocking styles... |

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Citation Context ...en the case in neural network learning, where the network evolves incrementally over many cycles. Stochastic techniques Digital Neurochip Design 31 have been applied successfully to Hopfield networks =-=[36]-=-, competitive learning networks [17], and Boltzmann machines [6, 4]. Figure 12 shows the two basic operations: multiplication by ANDing pulse streams (P (AB) = P (A)P (B)), and addition by ORing (P (A... |

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Citation Context ...ously at the point of use and are only distributed locally over the iterative structure. Using this technique, Mark Santoro demonstrated 400MHz operation of a 4:2 adder-based multiplier in 0.8�� C=-=MOS [56, 57, 58]-=-. He built the local clock driver out of a 4:2 adder so it would track temperature and process variations. 3.4 Concurrency Concurrency is a widely used technique for increasing performance through par... |

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Citation Context ...ously at the point of use and are only distributed locally over the iterative structure. Using this technique, Mark Santoro demonstrated 400MHz operation of a 4:2 adder-based multiplier in 0.8�� C=-=MOS [56, 57, 58]-=-. He built the local clock driver out of a 4:2 adder so it would track temperature and process variations. 3.4 Concurrency Concurrency is a widely used technique for increasing performance through par... |

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Citation Context ...ously at the point of use and are only distributed locally over the iterative structure. Using this technique, Mark Santoro demonstrated 400MHz operation of a 4:2 adder-based multiplier in 0.8�� C=-=MOS [56, 57, 58]-=-. He built the local clock driver out of a 4:2 adder so it would track temperature and process variations. 3.4 Concurrency Concurrency is a widely used technique for increasing performance through par... |

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Learning of Stable States in Stochastic Asymmetric Networks
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Citation Context ...e" unit, which supplies a "1" to all the other units. Connections between the units are usually symmetric (w ij = w ji ), although this constraint can be relaxed if the weights are perm=-=itted to decay [21, 3]-=-. Network response to an input vector is found by initializing the hidden and output activations to random values and then annealing the network according to a temperature schedule. Annealing is neces... |

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6 | Stochastic Computers
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Citation Context ...e the energy required to transmit data with a dynamic range of N is proportional to N rather than to log(N) as in standard digital encoding. Good discussions of stochastic computation can be found in =-=[19, 47, 20]-=-. 5 Area, power, and performance estimation We have developed a simple area, performance, and power estimation technique which we use to construct spreadsheets in the early stages of architectural exp... |

6 |
VLSI Image Processors using Analog Programmable Synapses and Neurons
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Citation Context ... commercial 1T DRAM 8\Theta16 128 128 2(12) MOSIS 2T DRAM 13\Theta31 403 200 6(36) MOSIS 3T DRAM 24\Theta24 576 192 9(54) MOSIS 6T SRAM 32\Theta36 1152 192 18(108) MOSIS 7T USC 40\Theta60 2400 342 37 =-=[41]-=- 12T ETANN 83\Theta97 8036 671 125 [31] 42T Mitsubishi 200\Theta200 40000 952 625 [8] 200T ECLNN 160\Theta320 51200 256 700 [4] 1T MIT CCD 12\Theta10 120 120 2(12) MOSIS 3T MIT CAM - - - - MIT 30T And... |

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Citation Context ... reduced by velocity saturation. 34 James B. Burr 5.3 Power estimation We estimate power by estimating the capacitance switched on each clock cycle. We ignore short circuit current and DC leakage. In =-=[11]-=-, we showed that short circuit current can be optimized out of the system, and becomes negligible at low voltage because the current at the switching threshold of a gate is only a few percent of the c... |

4 |
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Citation Context ...ging the bitlines to at least a threshold drop below V dd . This is much higher energy than SRAM, which only has to swing the bitlines 100mV or so. DRAM cells must be refreshed due to leakage current =-=[14]-=-. Normally the refresh 24 James B. Burr wordline bit bitL 4T sram, poly pullups wordline bit bitL 4T sram, pfet pullups wordline bit bitL 6T sram dual ported 6T sram write wordline read wordline write... |

4 |
den Bout and Thomas K. Miller III. TInMANN: The integer Markovian artificial neural network
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Citation Context ...ng, where the network evolves incrementally over many cycles. Stochastic techniques Digital Neurochip Design 31 have been applied successfully to Hopfield networks [36], competitive learning networks =-=[17]-=-, and Boltzmann machines [6, 4]. Figure 12 shows the two basic operations: multiplication by ANDing pulse streams (P (AB) = P (A)P (B)), and addition by ORing (P (A + B) = P (A)+P (B) \Gamma P (AB)). ... |

4 |
Multilevel random-access memory using one transistor per cell
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Citation Context ...much closer to being proportional to n due to devices. Multi-level storage Several researchers have reported techniques to store multiple levels in a single DRAM cell. The first were Heald and Hodges =-=[26]-=- in 1976. More recently, Aoki, Horiguchi, and colleagues [7, 33] reported 16 levels per cell in 1987. More levels might be achievable in neural networks since errors will always be small. Weight decay... |

4 |
Stochastic and deterministic averaging processors
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e the energy required to transmit data with a dynamic range of N is proportional to N rather than to log(N) as in standard digital encoding. Good discussions of stochastic computation can be found in =-=[19, 47, 20]-=-. 5 Area, power, and performance estimation We have developed a simple area, performance, and power estimation technique which we use to construct spreadsheets in the early stages of architectural exp... |

3 |
Uncertainty as a foundation of computational power in neural networks
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Citation Context ...e the energy required to transmit data with a dynamic range of N is proportional to N rather than to log(N) as in standard digital encoding. Good discussions of stochastic computation can be found in =-=[19, 47, 20]-=-. 5 Area, power, and performance estimation We have developed a simple area, performance, and power estimation technique which we use to construct spreadsheets in the early stages of architectural exp... |

3 |
The Block Z transform and applications to digital signal processing using distributed arithmetic and the Modified Fermat Number transform
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...] and various redundant binary methods [24] have been proposed. "4:2" arithmetic based on 4:2 adders [60] interfaces cleanly to standard two's complement, implements an efficient, compact ac=-=cumulator [44, 43, 42, 56, 57, 58], and has -=-optimal logic depth [13]. Although 4:2 adders can be implemented using two full adders we discovered a "direct logic" implementation [44] that reduces the number of xors in series from four ... |

3 |
An 80 MHz Multiply Accumulator
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Citation Context ...] and various redundant binary methods [24] have been proposed. "4:2" arithmetic based on 4:2 adders [60] interfaces cleanly to standard two's complement, implements an efficient, compact ac=-=cumulator [44, 43, 42, 56, 57, 58], and has -=-optimal logic depth [13]. Although 4:2 adders can be implemented using two full adders we discovered a "direct logic" implementation [44] that reduces the number of xors in series from four ... |

3 |
User's guide to NET, PRESIM, and RNL/NL
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...y stages of architectural exploration and feasibility analysis in an area-limited design. 5.2 Performance estimation We estimate performance using a simple RC timing model based on the RSIM simulator =-=[63]-=-, in which transistors are calibrated to have an effective resistance charging or discharging a node capacitance. Table 5 summarizes the equations we use to compute propagation delay. The symbology of... |

2 |
Masayoshi Ohkawa, Akane Aizaki, Yasushi Okuyama, 54 James B. Burr Isao Sasaki
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...- [37] 16M DRAM 10ns 2M 100M 50 - - M5M44C256 1M DRAM 60ns 128K 8M 63 300mW 38nJ [45] 512K DRAM 12ns 64K 80M 1250 1.7W 21nJ [54] 4M RDRAM 2ns 512K 500M 953 - - [25] 4M SRAM 23ns 512K 43M 84 350mW 8nJ =-=[2]-=- 4M SRAM 15ns 512K 67M 131 650mW 10nJ [59] 4M SRAM 9ns 512K 111M 217 970mW 9nJ Paradigm91 1M SRAM 17ns 128K 59M 449 - - Table 1: Maximum pattern presentation rates at full capacity for various memory ... |

2 |
Advanced simulation and development techniques
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Citation Context ...c [50]. Detailed timing simulation and analysis were done with spice [49]. Functional simulation, coarse timing, critical path analysis, and power measurements were done using our own version of rsim =-=[63, 10]-=-. 6.3 Multichip networks The chip is designed to be tiled in a regular array with nearest neighbor connections to implement multichip networks. The sigmoid units are deactivated in all chips except th... |