## Towards a Uniform Formal Framework for Parsing (1991)

Venue: | Current Issues in Parsing Technology |

Citations: | 48 - 3 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Lang91towardsa,

author = {Bernard Lang},

title = {Towards a Uniform Formal Framework for Parsing},

booktitle = {Current Issues in Parsing Technology},

year = {1991},

pages = {153--171},

publisher = {Kluwer Academic Publishers}

}

### Years of Citing Articles

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Introduction Many of the formalisms used to define the syntax of natural (and programming) languages may be located in a continuum that ranges from propositional Horn logic to full first order Horn logic, possibly with non-Herbrand interpretations. This structural parenthood has been previously remarked: it lead to the development of Prolog [Col-78, Coh-88] and is analyzed in some detail in [PerW-80] for Context-Free languages and Horn Clauses. A notable outcome is the parsing technique known as Earley deduction [PerW-83]. These formalisms play (at least) three roles: descriptive: they give a finite and organized description of the syntactic structure of the language, analytic: they can be used to analyze sentences so as to retrieve a syntactic structure (i.e. a representation) from which the meaning can be extracted, generative: they can also be used as the specification of the concrete representation of sentences from a more

### Citations

688 | An Efficient Context-Free Parsing Algorithm
- Earley
- 1970
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...des. OR-nodes are represented by the non-terminal categories of the grammar, and AND-nodes 2 Many variants of Earley's algorithm published in the literature [BouPS-75, Tom-87], including Earley's own =-=[Ear-70]-=-, could be viewed as special cases of that approach. S 1 NP 3 PP 6 NP 4 n v det n prep det n I see a man with a mirror VP 7 NP 4 S 2 Figure 3: A parse tree NP 3 PP 6 NP 4 n v det n prep det n I see a ... |

351 |
Definite Clause Grammars for Language Analysis - a Survey of the Formalism and a Comparison with Augmented Transition Networks
- Pereira, Warren
- 1980
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...orn logic, possibly with non-Herbrand interpretations. This structural parenthood has been previously remarked: it lead to the development of Prolog [Col-78, Coh-88] and is analyzed in some detail in =-=[PerW-80]-=- for Context-Free languages and Horn Clauses. A notable outcome is the parsing technique known as Earley deduction [PerW-83]. These formalisms play (at least) three roles: descriptive: they give a fin... |

225 |
Resolution with Tabulation
- Tamald, Sato, et al.
- 1986
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... these compilation schemata. ffl an execution phase that can interpret the LPDA according to some execution technique: backtrack (depth-first), breadth-first, dynamic programming, or some combination =-=[TamS-86]-=-. This separation of concerns leads to a better understanding of issues, and should allow a more systematic comparison of the possible alternatives. In the case of dynamic programming execution, the L... |

156 |
The Theory of Parsing, Translation and Compiling
- Melnikov, Aho, et al.
- 1972
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...we consider PDAs without "finite state" control: this is possible without loss of generality by having pop transitions that replace the top two atoms by only one (this is standard in LR(k) P=-=DA parsers[AhoU-72]-=-). Formally a LPDA A is a 6-tuple: A = (X; F; \Delta; ffi $ ; $ f ; \Theta) where X is a set of variables, F is a set of functions and constants symbols, \Delta is a set of stack predicate symbols, ff... |

143 |
Parsing as deduction
- Pereira, Warren
- 1983
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...he development of Prolog [Col-78, Coh-88] and is analyzed in some detail in [PerW-80] for Context-Free languages and Horn Clauses. A notable outcome is the parsing technique known as Earley deduction =-=[PerW-83]-=-. These formalisms play (at least) three roles: descriptive: they give a finite and organized description of the syntactic structure of the language, analytic: they can be used to analyze sentences so... |

125 | The structure of shared forests in ambiguous parsing
- Billot, Lang
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of them [VijWJ-87, VijW-89]. The parse forests built in the CF case correspond to proof forests in the Horn case. Such proof forests may be obtained by the same techniques that we used for CF parsing =-=[BilL-89]-=-. However it is not yet fully clear how parse trees or derivation trees may be extracted from the proof forest when DC programs are used to encode non-CF syntactic formalisms. On the basis of our expe... |

86 | Characterizing structural descriptions produced by various grammatical formalisms
- Vijay-Shanker, Weir, et al.
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...alisms. On the basis of our experience with TAGs, we conjecture that for non-CF formalisms, the proof forest obtained corresponds to derivation forests (i.e. containing derivation trees as defined in =-=[VijWJ-87]-=-) rather than to forest representing the possible superficial syntactic structure of object trees. 5 Concluding Remarks Our understanding of syntactic structures and parsing may be considerably enhanc... |

84 | Deterministic Techniques for Efficient Non-deterministic Parsers - Lang - 1974 |

73 | Recursive Query Processing: The power of Logic - Vieille - 1988 |

71 | An Efficient Augmented-Context-Free Parsing Algorithm
- Tomita
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ity is not accidental, and that there is no difference between a shared forest and a grammar. 2.1 Context-free Grammars Our running example for a CF grammar is the pico-grammar of English, taken from =-=[Tom-87]-=-, which is given in figure 1. In figure 2 we give a graphical representation of this grammar as an AND-OR graph. The notation for this AND-OR graph is unusual and emphasizes the difference between AND... |

42 | Simple lr(k) grammars - DeRemer - 1971 |

32 | An efficient context-free parsing algorithm for natural languages - Tomita - 1985 |

30 | Parsing Incomplete Sentences
- Lang
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... it may grow exponentially with that size, and may even be infinite for cyclic grammars (which seem of little linguistic usefulness [PerW-83, Tom-85], except may-be for analyzing ill-formed sentences =-=[Lan-88a]-=-). Since it is often desirable to consider all possible parse trees (e.g. for semantic processing), it is convenient to merge as much as possible these parse trees into a single structure that allows ... |

19 |
Complete Evaluation of Horn Clauses: an Automata Theoretic Approach. INRIA Research Report 913
- Lang
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... s and E. This produces the item !Css 0 E 0 s 0 ?. 3.2 Top-down compilation of DC programs into LPDAs Given a DC program, many different compilation schemata may be used to build a corresponding LPDA =-=[Lan-88c]-=-. We give here a very simple and unoptimized top-down construction. The DC program to be compiled is composed of a set of clauses fl k : A k;0 :- A k;1 ; : : : ; A k;n k , where each A k;i is a logica... |

19 | A Report on the
- Terrell, R
- 2007
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tion of the original grammar into a 2-size grammar, i.e. a grammar such that the right-hand sides of rules have a length at most equal to 2. This generalizes/simplifies the use of Chomsky Normal Form =-=[Pra-75]-=- or 2-form [She-76]. Such a transformation amounts effectively to allowing two forest nodes to share a common sublist of their respective lists of sons. This type of transformation is explicitly or im... |

17 | A View of the Origins and Development of Prolog - Cohen - 1988 |

14 | Polynomial parsing of extensions of context-free grammars - Vijay-Shanker, Weir - 1990 |

13 | The systematic constructions of Earley parsers: Application to the production of O(n 6 ) Earley parsers for Tree Adjoining Grammars. Unpublished manuscript
- Lang
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ical paper [PerW-80] the link between CF grammars and DC programs. A similar approach may be applied to more complex formalisms than CF grammars, and we have done so for Tree Adjoining Grammars (TAG) =-=[Lan-88d]-=-. By encoding TAGs into DC programs, we can specialize to TAGs the above results, and easily build TAG parsers (using at least the general optimization techniques valid for all DC programs). Furthermo... |

11 | Datalog Automata - Lang - 1988 |

9 | 1978] Metamorphosis Grammars, in Natural Language Conm~unication with Computers, Vol i - Colmerauer - 1978 |

8 | Efficient parsing algorithms for general context-free parsers - Bouckaert, Pirotte, et al. - 1975 |

3 |
Observations on Context Free Parsing. in Statistical Methods in Linguistics: 71-109
- Sheil
- 1976
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...l grammar into a 2-size grammar, i.e. a grammar such that the right-hand sides of rules have a length at most equal to 2. This generalizes/simplifies the use of Chomsky Normal Form [Pra-75] or 2-form =-=[She-76]-=-. Such a transformation amounts effectively to allowing two forest nodes to share a common sublist of their respective lists of sons. This type of transformation is explicitly or implicitly performed/... |

2 | Analyseurs Syntaxiques et Non-D'eterminisme. Th`ese de Doctorat, Universit'e d'Orl'eans la Source - Billot - 1988 |

2 | 3 rd 1986 Earley Deduction - Porter |

2 |
Evaluateur de Clauses de Horn. Rapport de Stage d'Option, Ecole Polytechnique
- Clergerie, E, et al.
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pretation of the original DC program. 3.3 A very simple example The following example has been produced with a prototype implementation realized by Eric Villemonte de la Clergerie and Alain Zanchetta =-=[VilZ-88]-=-. This example, as well as the top-down construction above, are taken from [Lan-88c]. The definite clause program to be executed is given in figure 11. Note that a search for all solutions in a backtr... |