## Comparing and Evaluating Layout Algorithms within GraphEd (1995)

Venue: | J. Visual Languages and Computing |

Citations: | 16 - 2 self |

### BibTeX

@ARTICLE{Himsolt95comparingand,

author = {Michael Himsolt},

title = {Comparing and Evaluating Layout Algorithms within GraphEd},

journal = {J. Visual Languages and Computing},

year = {1995},

volume = {6},

pages = {255--273}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

This paper is organized as follows. In section 2, we present an overview on the GraphEd system and the implemented graph drawing algorithms. Section 3 explains our evaluation experiments, and Section 4 shows our results. In Section 5 we give a subjective ranking of layout criteria. 2 GraphEd

### Citations

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- 1984
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Citation Context ...eneral graphs Our Force Directed Algorithms (FD-K, FD-FR) are based on the algorithms by Kamada and Kawai [28] and by Fruchterman and Reingold [18], which are based on the original algorithm by Eades =-=[11]-=-. Such algorithms impose certain forces upon the nodes of a graph. A heuristic is used to bring them into equilibrium. They produce very good layouts for most graphs, and display isomorphic and symmet... |

521 | An algorithm for drawing general undirected graphs
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Citation Context ...ifferent from each other. This shall help in focussing on the essentials. 2.1 Algorithms for general graphs Our Force Directed Algorithms (FD-K, FD-FR) are based on the algorithms by Kamada and Kawai =-=[28]-=- and by Fruchterman and Reingold [18], which are based on the original algorithm by Eades [11]. Such algorithms impose certain forces upon the nodes of a graph. A heuristic is used to bring them into ... |

472 | Graph drawing by force-directed placement
- Fruchterman, Reingold
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...help in focussing on the essentials. 2.1 Algorithms for general graphs Our Force Directed Algorithms (FD-K, FD-FR) are based on the algorithms by Kamada and Kawai [28] and by Fruchterman and Reingold =-=[18]-=-, which are based on the original algorithm by Eades [11]. Such algorithms impose certain forces upon the nodes of a graph. A heuristic is used to bring them into equilibrium. They produce very good l... |

361 |
Methods for Visual Understanding of Hierarchical Systems Structure
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- 1989
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Citation Context ...gs than the FD-FR approach, but it has a noticeably higher runtime. 2.2 Algorithms for directed acyclic graphs Directed Acyclic Graph Drawing (DAG) is based on algorithms by Sugiyama, Tagawa and Toda =-=[34]-=- and Eades and Sugiyama [13]. This algorithm provides a good base to draw directed acyclic graphs according to their topological sorting. They can also be be applied to general graphs, by temporarily ... |

358 |
Graph Algorithms
- Even
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...r graphs Planarity is a typical characteristic for graph drawing. There are several algorithms around which draw planar graphs with a planar embedding. For example, standard planarity tests (see e.g. =-=[14]-=-) can be modified to produce a planar embedding, which is a cyclic ordering of the edges around each node. This ordering does not directly define coordinates, but determines a general frame for the la... |

233 | A technique for drawing directed graphs
- Gansner, Koutsofios, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lgorithms must be revised. Another important issue will be the development of more flexible and application oriented layout algorithms. Most current algorithms (probably with the exception of the dot =-=[19]-=- and the Diagram Server [9] systems) do not offer much flexibility. They cannot be adapted to the specific needs of the structures that they display. Our data flow and Petri net experiments clearly sh... |

199 |
Embedding planar graphs on the grid
- Schnyder
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ight Line Edges (PGS) is based on an algorithm by de Fraysseix, Pach and Pollack [17] with speed improvements as described by Chrobak and Payne [4]. A similar algorithm has been described by Schnyder =-=[32]-=-. Similar to the previous one, this algorithm tends to cluster nodes. The graph always has a triangular shape. From the subjective quality of its drawings, this algorithm is our worst, although it has... |

191 | Drawing Graphs Nicely Using Simulated Annealing
- Davison, Harel
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...teria and algorithms. Fruchterman and Reingold [18] have many examples, and compare their results with drawings from Kamada and Kawai [28]. We have included most of their examples in our database. In =-=[6]-=-, Davidson and Harel provide many examples, and compare their algorithm to layouts from force directed algorithms. They did not provide statistics. Most of their examples are included in our database.... |

156 |
How to draw a planar graph on a grid
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- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... and PG algorithms. The outer face is always circular. But, the algorithm runs very fast. Planar Grid Drawing With Straight Line Edges (PGS) is based on an algorithm by de Fraysseix, Pach and Pollack =-=[17]-=- with speed improvements as described by Chrobak and Payne [4]. A similar algorithm has been described by Schnyder [32]. Similar to the previous one, this algorithm tends to cluster nodes. The graph a... |

146 | Tidier Drawing of Trees
- Reingold, Tilford
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... are tailored to graphs with a special structure, and can reduce this gap. Tree Drawing (T) is based on an algorithm by Walker [38], which is a generalization of the algorithm by Reingold and Tilford =-=[31]-=-. From the practical point of view, tree drawing seems to be the closest to a general solution. Our algorithm reproduces the tree structure in nearly the same way as the user would do it by hand. Petr... |

137 |
On embedding a graph in the grid with the minimum number of bends
- Tamassia
- 1987
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mains to bring this frame into a nice form. This has been realized by the following four algorithms: Planar Orthogonal Grid Drawing with Bends Minimization (POGB) is based on an algorithm by Tamassia =-=[35]-=-. All nodes are placed on a grid, and edges are polylines with only horizontal and vertical segments. The number of bends is minimized with respect to the given planar embedding. This algorithm gives ... |

97 | Automatic Graph Drawing and Readability of Diagrams
- Tamassia, Battista, et al.
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...pted benchmark. These statistics provide objective criteria. Nevertheless, there have been several earlier attempts on a comparison of graph drawing algorithms and broader collections of examples. In =-=[36]-=-, Tamassia, Di Battista and Batini give a survey of graph layout criteria and algorithms. Fruchterman and Reingold [18] have many examples, and compare their results with drawings from Kamada and Kawa... |

90 |
How to draw a directed graph
- Sugiyama
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...but it has a noticeably higher runtime. 2.2 Algorithms for directed acyclic graphs Directed Acyclic Graph Drawing (DAG) is based on algorithms by Sugiyama, Tagawa and Toda [34] and Eades and Sugiyama =-=[13]-=-. This algorithm provides a good base to draw directed acyclic graphs according to their topological sorting. They can also be be applied to general graphs, by temporarily reversing some edges to brea... |

65 | A better heuristic for orthogonal graph drawings
- BIEDL, KANT
- 1998
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...B algorithm, where edges are composed of horizontal or vertical segments only. Note that there are further linear-time planar polyline drawing algorithms that guarantee a linear number of bends, e.g. =-=[1]-=-, [10], [37], but these have not yet been implemented in our system. Planar Convex Faces Drawing with Straight Line Edges (PCS) is based on an algorithm by Chiba, Onoguchi and Nishizeki [3]. Some grap... |

50 |
Planar grid embedding in linear time
- TAMASSIA, TOLLIS
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., where edges are composed of horizontal or vertical segments only. Note that there are further linear-time planar polyline drawing algorithms that guarantee a linear number of bends, e.g. [1], [10], =-=[37]-=-, but these have not yet been implemented in our system. Planar Convex Faces Drawing with Straight Line Edges (PCS) is based on an algorithm by Chiba, Onoguchi and Nishizeki [3]. Some graphs are drawn... |

49 |
A node-positioning algorithm for general trees
- Walker
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... of the automatic drawings and the man-made drawings. The next algorithms are tailored to graphs with a special structure, and can reduce this gap. Tree Drawing (T) is based on an algorithm by Walker =-=[38]-=-, which is a generalization of the algorithm by Reingold and Tilford [31]. From the practical point of view, tree drawing seems to be the closest to a general solution. Our algorithm reproduces the tr... |

38 |
Automating the Layout of Network Diagrams with Specified Visual Organization
- Kosak, Marks, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...aph drawings should reflect both. Moreover, human's evaluate drawings according to further criteria. They may be based on intuition and are not completely known. This point has been stressed, e.g. in =-=[29]-=- A good graph drawing algorithm should be based on a mixture of all these criteria. It should reflect the properties of the graph, the application structure and the cognitive structure, reflecting hum... |

31 | Maximum planar subgraphs and nice embeddings: Practical layout tools
- Jünger, Mutzel
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...B and PGS, and the drawings would not be much different. Moreover, there are some approaches using algorithms for planar graphs for drawing of general graphs after an initial planarisation step ([8], =-=[27]-=-, [30]). However, the influence of the planarization step is difficult to evaluate. 2.4 Algorithms for graphs with a special structure The above algorithms are based on the graph theoretic properties ... |

25 | GraphEd: a graphical platform for the implementation of graph algorithms
- Himsolt
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mented graph drawing algorithms. Section 3 explains our evaluation experiments, and Section 4 shows our results. In Section 5 we give a subjective ranking of layout criteria. 2 GraphEd GraphEd ([24], =-=[25]-=-, [20]) is an extensible editor for graphs and graph grammars. The GraphEd system consists of the following three parts: the core system, the application interface, and the application modules. It it ... |

22 |
Drawing planar graphs nicely
- Chiba, Onoguchi, et al.
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ends, e.g. [1], [10], [37], but these have not yet been implemented in our system. Planar Convex Faces Drawing with Straight Line Edges (PCS) is based on an algorithm by Chiba, Onoguchi and Nishizeki =-=[3]-=-. Some graphs are drawn nicely with this algorithm. However, it generally tends to cluster nodes, which makes the drawings less readable than those produced by the POGB and PG algorithms. The outer fa... |

20 |
A linear time algorithm for drawing a planar graph on a grid
- Chrobak, Payne
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... algorithm runs very fast. Planar Grid Drawing With Straight Line Edges (PGS) is based on an algorithm by de Fraysseix, Pach and Pollack [17] with speed improvements as described by Chrobak and Payne =-=[4]-=-. A similar algorithm has been described by Schnyder [32]. Similar to the previous one, this algorithm tends to cluster nodes. The graph always has a triangular shape. From the subjective quality of i... |

19 |
Konzeption und Implementierung von Grapheneditoren
- Himsolt
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... implemented graph drawing algorithms. Section 3 explains our evaluation experiments, and Section 4 shows our results. In Section 5 we give a subjective ranking of layout criteria. 2 GraphEd GraphEd (=-=[24]-=-, [25], [20]) is an extensible editor for graphs and graph grammars. The GraphEd system consists of the following three parts: the core system, the application interface, and the application modules. ... |

16 | An Experimental Comparison of Three Graph Drawing Algorithms, Computational Geometry: Theory & Applications
- Battista, Garg, et al.
- 1996
(Show Context)
Citation Context ..., POGB and PGS, and the drawings would not be much different. Moreover, there are some approaches using algorithms for planar graphs for drawing of general graphs after an initial planarisation step (=-=[8]-=-, [27], [30]). However, the influence of the planarization step is difficult to evaluate. 2.4 Algorithms for graphs with a special structure The above algorithms are based on the graph theoretic prope... |

14 |
The architecture of diagram server
- Battista, Giammarco, et al.
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...nother important issue will be the development of more flexible and application oriented layout algorithms. Most current algorithms (probably with the exception of the dot [19] and the Diagram Server =-=[9]-=- systems) do not offer much flexibility. They cannot be adapted to the specific needs of the structures that they display. Our data flow and Petri net experiments clearly show the benefit of such appr... |

14 | Randomized graph drawing with heavy-duty preprocessing
- Harel, Sardas
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...el provide many examples, and compare their algorithm to layouts from force directed algorithms. They did not provide statistics. Most of their examples are included in our database. Harel and Sardas =-=[21]-=- extend the algorithms and compare them with an implementation of PGS. Several algorithms for drawing planar graphs are compared by Jones et al. in [26]. Among them are implementations of PCS and PGS.... |

14 |
Drawing Planar Graphs
- Woods
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... the given planar embedding. This algorithm gives our best layouts, although we must pay for it with the highest running time in this class. Planar Grid Drawing (PG) is based on an algorithm by Woods =-=[39]-=-. This algorithm gives suitable results for small graphs, but the number of bends is much higher than the one obtained with the POGB algorithm. Theoretically, it has a quadratic bound on the number of... |

13 | Drawing graphs by example efficiently: Trees and planar acyclic digraphs
- Cruz, Garg
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... needs of the structures that they display. Our data flow and Petri net experiments clearly show the benefit of such approaches. Techniques such as graph grammars and declarative graph drawing ([12], =-=[5]-=-) are needed to extend the old paradigms. GraphEd's layout algorithms will be refined in these directions. Other plans include dynamic algorithms, the application of layout algorithms to real world st... |

8 |
A note on planar graph drawing algorithms
- Jones, Eades, et al.
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... are included in our database. Harel and Sardas [21] extend the algorithms and compare them with an implementation of PGS. Several algorithms for drawing planar graphs are compared by Jones et al. in =-=[26]-=-. Among them are implementations of PCS and PGS. Finally, Di Battista et al. [8] provide an experimental comparison of three orthogonal graph drawing algorithms, which have been implemented using Diag... |

4 |
Termgraph: Ein system zur zeichnerischen darstellung von strukturierten agenten und petrinetzen
- Seisenberger
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...f view, tree drawing seems to be the closest to a general solution. Our algorithm reproduces the tree structure in nearly the same way as the user would do it by hand. Petri Nets (PETRI) Seisenberger =-=[33]-=- has implemented a Petri net drawing algorithm in GraphEd. The Petri net algorithm takes agents as input, which are term descriptions for special Petri net structures. Graph theoretically, they are si... |

3 | Designing dataflow graphs by graph grammars
- Brandenburg, Himsolt, et al.
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... for the drawing. However, not all Petri nets have such a term description. Data Flow Graphs by Graph Grammar (GG-Df) In a case study, we have designed a graph grammar that generates data flow graphs =-=[2]-=-. Figure 1: The effect of different planar embeddings in the POGB algorithm. Graph Grammar Based Algorithms (GG-H) Several variants of layout algorithms based on graph grammars have been implemented b... |

3 |
related documents are available by anonymous ftp from the site ftp.uni-passau.de, /pub/local/graphed
- Graphed
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... graph drawing algorithms. Section 3 explains our evaluation experiments, and Section 4 shows our results. In Section 5 we give a subjective ranking of layout criteria. 2 GraphEd GraphEd ([24], [25], =-=[20]-=-) is an extensible editor for graphs and graph grammars. The GraphEd system consists of the following three parts: the core system, the application interface, and the application modules. It it writte... |

3 |
The maximum planar subgraph problem. Dissertation, Universit at Koln
- Mutzel
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...PGS, and the drawings would not be much different. Moreover, there are some approaches using algorithms for planar graphs for drawing of general graphs after an initial planarisation step ([8], [27], =-=[30]-=-). However, the influence of the planarization step is difficult to evaluate. 2.4 Algorithms for graphs with a special structure The above algorithms are based on the graph theoretic properties of a g... |

2 |
Rechtwinkliges Layout von hierarchisch strukturierten Graphen
- Hickl
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... 1: The effect of different planar embeddings in the POGB algorithm. Graph Grammar Based Algorithms (GG-H) Several variants of layout algorithms based on graph grammars have been implemented by Hickl =-=[22]-=-. These algorithms use a graph grammar for more information on the graph's structure. Graph grammars are natural extensions of string grammars to graphs ([15], [16]). They enrich the graph by a hierar... |

1 |
Tamassia & I.G. Tollis (1994) Algorithms for drawing graphs: An annotated bibliography
- Battista, Eades, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...structures such as finite state automata, state charts, flowcharts, database schemata, electrical and VLSI circuits, Petri nets, neural nets, or molecules, to name just a few. Automatic graph drawing =-=[7]-=- is a current field of research. For specific graph drawing algorithms, graphs must be classified according to their characteristics. However, there is a wide range of such characteristics, such as di... |

1 |
Tamassia & I.G. Tollis
- Battista, R
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...orithm, where edges are composed of horizontal or vertical segments only. Note that there are further linear-time planar polyline drawing algorithms that guarantee a linear number of bends, e.g. [1], =-=[10]-=-, [37], but these have not yet been implemented in our system. Planar Convex Faces Drawing with Straight Line Edges (PCS) is based on an algorithm by Chiba, Onoguchi and Nishizeki [3]. Some graphs are... |

1 |
Integration of Declarative and Algorithmis Approaches for Layout Creation
- Eades, Lin
- 1994
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ecific needs of the structures that they display. Our data flow and Petri net experiments clearly show the benefit of such approaches. Techniques such as graph grammars and declarative graph drawing (=-=[12]-=-, [5]) are needed to extend the old paradigms. GraphEd's layout algorithms will be refined in these directions. Other plans include dynamic algorithms, the application of layout algorithms to real wor... |