## Parsing of Context-Free Languages (1997)

Venue: | In: Rozenberg G., Salomaa A. (Eds), Handbook of Formal Languages |

Citations: | 18 - 2 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Sikkel97parsingof,

author = {Klaas Sikkel and Anton Nijholt},

title = {Parsing of Context-Free Languages},

booktitle = {In: Rozenberg G., Salomaa A. (Eds), Handbook of Formal Languages},

year = {1997},

pages = {61--100},

publisher = {Springer-Verlag}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Parsing is the process of assigning structure to sentences. The structure is obtained from the grammatical description of the language. Both in Computer Science and in Computational Linguistics, context-free grammars and associated parsing algorithms are among the most useful tools. Numerous parsing algorithms have been developed. Special subclasses of the contextfree grammars have been introduced in order to allow and induce efficient parsing algorithms. Special superclasses of the context-free grammars have been introduced in order to allow use of variants of efficient parsing methods that had been developed for context-free grammars. At first sight many parsing algorithms seem to be different, but nevertheless related. Some unifying approaches have been attempted in the past, but none survived the changing field. This report introduces a unifying approach at a level between grammars and algorithms, introducing so-called parsing schemata. In the parsing schemata framework the essenti...

### Citations

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- Bresnan, Kaplan
- 1982
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rammars [PW80], Functional Unification Grammar [Kay85], and PATR-II [Shi86] have been introduced primarily to offer powerful formalisms for grammar description; others like Lexical-Functional Grammar =-=[KB82]-=- and Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar [PS87, PS94] with the aim to provide a theory of linguistic phenomena in natural language. Unification grammars are related to attribute grammars [Knu68, Knu7... |

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364 | The Logic of Typed Feature Structures
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of compiler construction. There are some fundamental differences in the underlying logic, but these cannot be explained satisfactorily in a few lines. The interested reader is referred to [Shi92] and =-=[Car92]-=- for a thorough treatment of unification logics. 13 called filters in the cited publications, but not to be confused with the filters in Section 5. 36 One of the properties of context-free grammars th... |

191 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ... redundancy, that guarantees the existence of a balanced recognition tree for each item, which -- given enough computing resources -- allows for parallel parsing in logarithmic time. For a proof, see =-=[GR88]-=- or [Sik93a, Sik97]. A parsing schema for Rytter's algorithm is defined as follows. The operations associated with the sets of deduction steps D (1) , D (2) , and D (3) , are originally called activat... |

163 |
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- Knuth
- 1965
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...erated by context-free languages. Many parsing algorithms from the field of compiler construction are based on the PDA paradigm. The canonical example is the family of LR-parsers, discovered by Knuth =-=[Knu65]-=- and extended to the more practical SLR and LALR parsers by 34 DeRemer [DeR69, DeR71]. See [ASU86] for a good introduction and [Nij83] for an extensive bibliography of LR parsing. While deterministic ... |

144 | The convergence of mildly context-sensitive grammatical formalisms
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- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...tural languages, it led to a systematic comparison of grammar formalisms, yielding the weakly contextsensitive languages as a newly discovered class for which adequate generative capacity was claimed =-=[JVW91]-=-, and it led to many less efficient, but nevertheless polynomial variants of general context-free parsing algorithms. 5 The formalisms mentioned above are certainly much more general than a pure conte... |

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85 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...been introduced to cover wider classes of grammars, in particular for use in computational linguistics. A general method to handle nondeterministic PDA's in an efficient manner has been given by Lang =-=[Lan74]-=-. Generalized LR parsing has attracted more attention in the form of Tomita's algorithm [Tom85], based on a graph-structured stack as the data structure to handle the ambiguities that occur during par... |

84 |
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...c \Gamma! P 2 (G)(a 1 : : : an ) for all G 2 CG and for all a 1 : : : an . As a realistic example we give the parsing schema that underlies the improved Earley algorithm of Graham, Harrison and Ruzzo =-=[GHR80]-=-. This is a combination of two different step contractions: -- nullable symbols (i.e. symbols that can be rewritten to the empty string) can be skipped when the dot is worked rightwards through a prod... |

70 |
Parsing in function unification grammar
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ational linguistics. Between 1980 and 1990 a variety of different kinds of unification grammar has been introduced. Some of these, like Definite Clause Grammars [PW80], Functional Unification Grammar =-=[Kay85]-=-, and PATR-II [Shi86] have been introduced primarily to offer powerful formalisms for grammar description; others like Lexical-Functional Grammar [KB82] and Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar [PS87,... |

50 |
Head-driven parsing
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e LR parsing table. A general formal framework for this type of optimization is given by Visser [KV94, Vis95] who applies disambiguation rules 13 at the level of parsing schemata. Head-Driven parsing =-=[Kay89]-=- does not proceed through the sentence from left to right, but starts with the most informative parts. This introduces some extra administrative burden on the parser (as it jumps up and down the sente... |

43 | Simple LR(k) Grammars - DeRemer - 1971 |

38 | Algorithm Schemata and Data - Kay - 1980 |

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17 | Head-driven parsing for lexicalist grammars: Experimental results
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ence) but may lead to substantial savings if the semantic information captured in the head excludes possibilities that would have been explored without this information available. Bouma and van Noord =-=[BN93]-=- have done several experiments with head-driven parsing and conclude (unsurprisingly) that the efficiency of the algorithm is critically dependent on the discriminative nature of the information captu... |

5 |
Parsing in functional uni cation grammar
- Kay
- 1985
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...omputational linguistics. Between 1980 and 1990 a variety ofdi erent kinds of uni cation grammar has been introduced. Some of these, like De nite Clause Grammars [PW80], Functional Uni cation Grammar =-=[Kay85]-=-, and PATR-II [Shi86] have been introduced primarily to o er powerful formalisms for grammar description� others like Lexical-Functional Grammar [KB82] and Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar [PS87, ... |

3 |
Deterministic techniques for e cient non-deterministic parsers
- Lang
- 1974
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e been introduced to cover wider classes of grammars, in particular for use in computational linguistics. A general method to handle nondeterministic PDA's in an e cient manner has been given by Lang =-=[Lan74]-=-. Generalized LR parsing has attracted more attention in the form of Tomita's algorithm [Tom85], based on a graph-structured stack as the data structure to handle the ambiguities that occur during par... |