## Locality-aware network solutions (a survey (2004)

Citations: | 3 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@TECHREPORT{Malkhi04locality-awarenetwork,

author = {Dahlia Malkhi},

title = {Locality-aware network solutions (a survey},

institution = {},

year = {2004}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

Building self-maintaining overlay networks for locating information in a manner that exhibits locality-awareness is crucial for the viability of large internets. It means that costs are proportional to the actual distance of interacting parties, and in many cases, that load may be contained locally. This survey paper describes several locality-aware networks that support distributed content-based

### Citations

3750 | Chord: A Scalable Peer-to-Peer Lookup Service for Internet Applications
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...spatch where the data resides. The p2p works consider nodes dispersed uniformly on a Euclidean space (either real or virtual) of one or two dimensions and route in a distance-preserving manner. Chord =-=[50]-=- uses O(log n) links per node, and achieves an expected diameter O(log n). Symphony [40] uses a Kleinberg-like link distribution, achieving an expected diameter of O(log2 n/k) with k links per node. T... |

2884 | A scalable content addressable network
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Citation Context ...y routing infrastructure is used in this setting for locating objects based on their hashed names. This type of solution called a Distributed Hash Table (DHT) is the focus of enormous recent interest =-=[46, 50, 48, 56]-=-. In this setting, there is no relationship between hashed object identifiers and their reference node’s location. For load balancing, the space of hashed identifiers must be independent of the networ... |

1809 | Pastry: Scalable, Distributed Object Location and Routing for Large-scale Peer-to-peer Systems
- Rowstron, Druschel
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...twork, in which the growth bound is simple. Until recently, the main known result is the seminal work of Plaxton et al. in [44], on which a number of systems are based, e.g., Tapestry [56] and Pastry =-=[48]-=-. The PRR method guarantees expected constant stretch. The actual constant is rather large, and is really mostly of theoretical interest. However, the approximate deployments of this algorithm in Tape... |

1740 | GPSR: greedy perimeter stateless routing for wireless networks
- Karp, Kung
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...livery is face routing, due to Kranakis et al. [34]. However, face routing has no bound on the ratio between the cost of route and the minimal cost path. Both Bose et al. [14] (CGF) and Karp and Kung =-=[30]-=- (GPSR) propose an algorithm that combines greedy routing with face routing. In the MANET model, these algorithms guarantee delivery and for average case networks have expected cost O(d) between a sou... |

684 | Routing with Guaranteed Delivery in Ad Hoc Wireless Networks
- Bose, Morin, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ing algorithm to guarantee delivery is face routing, due to Kranakis et al. [34]. However, face routing has no bound on the ratio between the cost of route and the minimal cost path. Both Bose et al. =-=[14]-=- (CGF) and Karp and Kung [30] (GPSR) propose an algorithm that combines greedy routing with face routing. In the MANET model, these algorithms guarantee delivery and for average case networks have exp... |

669 | The Small-World Phenomenon: An Algorithmic Perspective
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...., [25], [55], [16], and [49]. Geometric routing is also relevant to an on-going effort in designing geometric routing networks for peer-to-peer (p2p) applications, based on routing in “small worlds” =-=[33]-=-. 2 The goal in this domain is for a dynamic set of nodes to jointly implement a shared data structure, such as a hash table. In order to realize a shared structure distributively, operations on data ... |

643 | A Scalable Location Service for Geographic Ad-Hoc Routing
- Li, Jannotti, et al.
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(Show Context)
Citation Context ...es that each node in the network needs to maintain information (albeit not accurate) about every other node. One of the pioneering works on efficient and scalable location services is by Li et al. in =-=[37]-=-. Similarly to the multi-zone method of [6], GLS utilizes a hierarchy of exponentially decreasing sets of regions (GLS uses squares rather than discs) that cover the plane. Every node belongs to only ... |

569 | Consistent hashing and random trees: Distributed caching protocols for relieving hot spots on the World Wide Web
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- 1997
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...squares rather than discs) that cover the plane. Every node belongs to only logM squares (were M is the diameter of the network). Using ingenious techniques drawn from the consistent hashing approach =-=[29]-=-, every node has a designated hashed location server within each square, thus distributing the load of location services across the network. The path taken by a GLS lookup operation is bounded inside ... |

542 | Predicting Internet Network Distance with Coordinates-Based Approaches
- Ng, Zhang
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of GPS devices, but also by several recent techniques that embed internet nodes in a coordinate space. One of the pioneering mechanisms to predict network latency is based on the work of Ng and Zhang =-=[43]-=-. They embed the Internet latencies into a virtual geometric space (e.g., 3-D Euclidean) and characterize the position of any node with coordinates. The computed distances are used to predict the actu... |

503 | Accessing nearby copies of replicated objects in a distributed environment
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- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...experiments, e.g., [23] that indicate that the Internet may be a power-law network, in which the growth bound is simple. Until recently, the main known result is the seminal work of Plaxton et al. in =-=[44]-=-, on which a number of systems are based, e.g., Tapestry [56] and Pastry [48]. The PRR method guarantees expected constant stretch. The actual constant is rather large, and is really mostly of theoret... |

484 | Tapestry: A resilient global-scale overlay for service deployment
- Zhao, Huang, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e a power-law network, in which the growth bound is simple. Until recently, the main known result is the seminal work of Plaxton et al. in [44], on which a number of systems are based, e.g., Tapestry =-=[56]-=- and Pastry [48]. The PRR method guarantees expected constant stretch. The actual constant is rather large, and is really mostly of theoretical interest. However, the approximate deployments of this a... |

418 | Measurement, modeling, and analysis of a peer-to-peer file-sharing workload
- Gummadi, Dunn, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...orming a self-organizing, selfmaintaining overlay network that locates objects (possibly replicated) placed in arbitrary network locations. Recent studies of scalable content exchange networks, e.g., =-=[24]-=-, indicate that up to 80% of Internet searches could be satisfied by local hosts within one’s own organization. Therefore, in order for the network to remain viable, it is crucial to consider locality... |

331 | GHT: A Geographic Hash Table for DataCentric Storage
- Ratnasamy, Karp, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...apping that designated a home location is itself challenging. An attractive solution for finding the home location is suggested in the context of sensor networks in the Geographic Hash Table (GHT) of =-=[47]-=-. In their approach, a home location is defined as a virtual coordinate rather than a node. They enhance the underlying routing to reach the closet node to the virtual point. A similar concept is empl... |

308 | Viceroy: A scalable and dynamic emulation of the butterfly
- Malkhi, Naor, et al.
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...g-like link distribution, achieving an expected diameter of O(log2 n/k) with k links per node. The same complexity was achieved in [8] with a different Kleinberg-style randomized p2p network. Viceroy =-=[39]-=- achieves O(log n) diameter with 5 links. Using our recent network design [2] with nodes that are dispersed uniformly on a uni-dimensional space matches the best complexity measures so far, i.e., of V... |

280 | Compass Routing on Geometric Networks
- Kranakis, Singh, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...de has a certain transmission range, and is linked directly to all nodes within this range (Unit Disk Graph). The first routing algorithm to guarantee delivery is face routing, due to Kranakis et al. =-=[34]-=-. However, face routing has no bound on the ratio between the cost of route and the minimal cost path. Both Bose et al. [14] (CGF) and Karp and Kung [30] (GPSR) propose an algorithm that combines gree... |

217 | Concurrent online tracking of mobile users
- Awerbuch, Peleg
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ervices addressed locality in a partial way. One of the early locality-aware location services that employs a hierarchy of partitions is provided for the general problem of object location in graphs (=-=[12]-=-). Their solution does not make use of geometric coordinates, nor address dynamism. Consequently, their solution is not easily adaptable to dynamic settings. In addition, their locality factors are so... |

215 | Approximate distance oracles
- Thorup, Zwick
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ta structures, see [20, 22]. Optimal stretch-3 compact schemes for labeled routing are already known. The first stretch 3 scheme was given by Cowen [15] with Õ(n2/3)3 memory. Later, Thorup and Zwick =-=[53, 54]-=- improved the memory bound to only Õ( √ n) bits. They also gave an elegant generalization of their scheme, achieving stretch 4k− 5 (and even 2k− 1 with handshaking) using only Õ(n1/k) bits. Addition... |

197 | Compact routing schemes
- THORUP, ZWICK
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ta structures, see [20, 22]. Optimal stretch-3 compact schemes for labeled routing are already known. The first stretch 3 scheme was given by Cowen [15] with Õ(n2/3)3 memory. Later, Thorup and Zwick =-=[53, 54]-=- improved the memory bound to only Õ( √ n) bits. They also gave an elegant generalization of their scheme, achieving stretch 4k− 5 (and even 2k− 1 with handshaking) using only Õ(n1/k) bits. Addition... |

193 | Worst-Case Optimal and Average-Case Efficient Geometric Ad-Hoc Routing
- Kuhn, Wattenhofer, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rantees is by Kuhn et al. [35]. They present a scheme in which, if the minimal cost path has cost d, then delivery with cost O(d2) is guaranteed, which is asymptotically optimal. In a follow up paper =-=[36]-=-, they combine their bounded face routing with greedy routing to achieve a scheme that is both worst case asymptotically optimal and average case efficient. Due to the MANET model, all of the above al... |

185 | Symphony: Distributed hashing in a small world
- Manku, Bawa, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lidean space (either real or virtual) of one or two dimensions and route in a distance-preserving manner. Chord [50] uses O(log n) links per node, and achieves an expected diameter O(log n). Symphony =-=[40]-=- uses a Kleinberg-like link distribution, achieving an expected diameter of O(log2 n/k) with k links per node. The same complexity was achieved in [8] with a different Kleinberg-style randomized p2p n... |

169 |
Estimating latency between arbitrary internet end hosts
- King
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e computed distances are used to predict the actual network distances. Following [43] other schemes have been developed to improve the embedding of internet hosts into virtual geometric spaces, e.g., =-=[25]-=-, [55], [16], and [49]. Geometric routing is also relevant to an on-going effort in designing geometric routing networks for peer-to-peer (p2p) applications, based on routing in “small worlds” [33]. 2... |

163 |
The GSM System for Mobile Communications
- Mouly, Pautet
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ortional to the distance between the old location x and the new location y. A survey of known solutions. A standard technique for name services in wireless cellular networks (e.g., ISA-4 [1], GSM MAP =-=[41]-=-) employs a home location register (HLR) for each mobile host. A publish algorithm stores the whereabouts of a node at its home location. The lookup first routes to the home location, and from there t... |

136 |
Sparse partitions
- Awerbuch, Peleg
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...this is tight [19]. As for name independent routing, progress has been much slower. Initial results in [10] provide non-compact name independent routing with Õ(n3/2) total memory. Awerbuch and Peleg =-=[11]-=- were the first to show that constant-stretch is possible to achieve with o(n) memory per node, albeit with a large constant. Recently, Arias et al. significantly reduced the stretch factor in [7], pr... |

132 | Big-bang simulation for embedding network distances in euclidean space - SHAVITT, TANKEL - 2003 |

127 |
Classes of graphs which approximate the complete Euclidean graph
- Keil, Gutwin
- 1992
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ng geometric coordinates has been considered in a number of previous works. By simply linking each node to its immediate neighbor in every angle, say θ, one obtains a constant stretch θ−spanner as in =-=[32]-=-, whose degree is constant but the number of hops may be Ω(n). Combining constant stretch and low degree with low diameter is not trivial, and progress has been slow. Recent work by Hassin and Peleg [... |

111 | Compact routing with minimum stretch
- Cowen
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ve surveys on compact routing and compact network data structures, see [20, 22]. Optimal stretch-3 compact schemes for labeled routing are already known. The first stretch 3 scheme was given by Cowen =-=[15]-=- with Õ(n2/3)3 memory. Later, Thorup and Zwick [53, 54] improved the memory bound to only Õ( √ n) bits. They also gave an elegant generalization of their scheme, achieving stretch 4k− 5 (and even 2k... |

103 | Asymptotically optimal geometric mobile ad-hoc routing
- Kuhn, Wattenhofer, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... The authors state that a remaining open question is improving the handling of node mobility. 7 A totally different approach focusing on worst case analysis is discussed in the Conclusion section of =-=[35]-=-. The authors describe an algorithm that we name the Iterative Bounded Flooding (IBF) algorithm. This algorithm runs in phases beginning with phase 1 and incrementing the phase by one until the destin... |

96 | Ad Hoc mobility management with uniform quorum systems
- Haas, Liang
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...leviate the problem of reaching specific location servers, several works suggest to replicate home location servers using quorum systems for availability and load balancing. Among these, the works of =-=[45, 31, 26, 27]-=- have no locality awareness. Other quorum based location services addressed locality in a partial way. One of the early locality-aware location services that employs a hierarchy of partitions is provi... |

86 | Routing in trees
- FRAIGNIAUD, GAVOILLE
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...shaking) using only Õ(n1/k) bits. Additionally, there exist various labeled routing schemes suitable only for certain restricted forms of graphs. For example, routing in a tree is explored, e.g., in =-=[18, 54]-=-, achieving optimal routing. This routing requires Õ(1) bits for local tables and Õ(1) bits for headers, and this is tight [19]. As for name independent routing, progress has been much slower. Initi... |

72 | Compact distributed data structures for adaptive routing
- Awerbuch, Bar-Noy, et al.
- 1989
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ble. In many cases it is unacceptable to have the node names precomputed in a centralized manner by the network designer. One practical motivation for name independence is given by Awerbuch et al. in =-=[9]-=-. They indicate that name dependent solutions are less appropriate for dynamic settings, in which nodes may join and depart the network and must be assigned long-term identifiers independent of their ... |

72 | Compact and localized distributed data structures, Research Report RR-1261-01
- Gavoille, Peleg
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eneral graphs is that of Gavoille and Gengler [21], indicating at least stretch-3 when each node has memory o(n). For comprehensive surveys on compact routing and compact network data structures, see =-=[20, 22]-=-. Optimal stretch-3 compact schemes for labeled routing are already known. The first stretch 3 scheme was given by Cowen [15] with Õ(n2/3)3 memory. Later, Thorup and Zwick [53, 54] improved the memor... |

70 |
Improved routing strategies with succinct tables
- Awerbuch, Bar-Noy, et al.
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...timal routing. This routing requires Õ(1) bits for local tables and Õ(1) bits for headers, and this is tight [19]. As for name independent routing, progress has been much slower. Initial results in =-=[10]-=- provide non-compact name independent routing with Õ(n3/2) total memory. Awerbuch and Peleg [11] were the first to show that constant-stretch is possible to achieve with o(n) memory per node, albeit ... |

63 | Fault-tolerant routing in peer-to-peer systems
- Aspnes, Diamadi, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...achieves an expected diameter O(log n). Symphony [40] uses a Kleinberg-like link distribution, achieving an expected diameter of O(log2 n/k) with k links per node. The same complexity was achieved in =-=[8]-=- with a different Kleinberg-style randomized p2p network. Viceroy [39] achieves O(log n) diameter with 5 links. Using our recent network design [2] with nodes that are dispersed uniformly on a uni-dim... |

63 | Space-Efficiency for Routing Schemes of Stretch Factor Three
- Gavoille, Gengler
(Show Context)
Citation Context .... We briefly survey the known solutions for generap graphs. For the three variants of routing/search problems above, the known lower bound in effect for general graphs is that of Gavoille and Gengler =-=[21]-=-, indicating at least stretch-3 when each node has memory o(n). For comprehensive surveys on compact routing and compact network data structures, see [20, 22]. Optimal stretch-3 compact schemes for la... |

62 | Compact nameindependent routing with minimum stretch
- Abraham, Gavoille, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...sible to achieve with o(n) memory per node, albeit with a large constant. Recently, Arias et al. significantly reduced the stretch factor in [7], providing stretch-5 with Õ( √ n) memory per node. In =-=[3]-=-, Abraham et al. close the gap and achieve stretch 3 for general graphs also with Õ( √ n) memory per node. Besides improving Arias et al. [7] stretch from 5 to 3, these results answer affirmatively t... |

61 | Practical, distributed network coordinates
- Cox, Dabek, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...istances are used to predict the actual network distances. Following [43] other schemes have been developed to improve the embedding of internet hosts into virtual geometric spaces, e.g., [25], [55], =-=[16]-=-, and [49]. Geometric routing is also relevant to an on-going effort in designing geometric routing networks for peer-to-peer (p2p) applications, based on routing in “small worlds” [33]. 2 The goal in... |

61 | Information dissemination in partitionable mobile ad hoc networks
- Karumanchi, Muralidharan, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...leviate the problem of reaching specific location servers, several works suggest to replicate home location servers using quorum systems for availability and load balancing. Among these, the works of =-=[45, 31, 26, 27]-=- have no locality awareness. Other quorum based location services addressed locality in a partial way. One of the early locality-aware location services that employs a hierarchy of partitions is provi... |

56 | LLS: a Locality Aware Location Service for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
- Abraham, Dolev, et al.
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...more formally, we review results in this domain, and introduce two recent works of ours: • A locality aware object location mechanism called LLS with logarithmic storage overhead by Abraham et al. in =-=[2]-=-. In LLS, costs are distance proportional both in the case of a location query, and in the case of an object move. • A bounded stretch plane routing algorithm by Abraham and Malkhi [4] with a constant... |

53 | Geoquorums: Implementing atomic memory in mobile ad hoc networks
- Dolev, Gilbert, et al.
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...e location is defined as a virtual coordinate rather than a node. They enhance the underlying routing to reach the closet node to the virtual point. A similar concept is employed in the GeoQuorums of =-=[17]-=-, where geometric coordinates determine the location of home servers. In GeoQuorums, these focal point coordinates define geographic areas that must be inhibited by at least one server at any time. St... |

52 | Routing on a curve
- Niculescu, Nath
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mism. Consequently, their solution is not easily adaptable to dynamic settings. In addition, their locality factors are somewhat large (polylogarithmic). The approach taken by several works, e.g., in =-=[51, 42, 13, 52]-=-, for quorum construction makes use of the planar structure of the network. It defines a write quorum for updating location information of a node as a column of some choice trajectory, and potentially... |

50 | Routing in distributed networks: Overview and open problems
- Gavoille
- 2001
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eneral graphs is that of Gavoille and Gengler [21], indicating at least stretch-3 when each node has memory o(n). For comprehensive surveys on compact routing and compact network data structures, see =-=[20, 22]-=-. Optimal stretch-3 compact schemes for labeled routing are already known. The first stretch 3 scheme was given by Cowen [15] with Õ(n2/3)3 memory. Later, Thorup and Zwick [53, 54] improved the memor... |

43 | R.: Incrementally Improving Lookup Latency in Distributed Hash Table
- Zhang, Goel, et al.
- 2003
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...arts of the network are not terribly different. More formally, there is a bound on the rate of density growth from one neighborhood, to a larger, encompassing one. There are indeed experiments, e.g., =-=[23]-=- that indicate that the Internet may be a power-law network, in which the growth bound is simple. Until recently, the main known result is the seminal work of Plaxton et al. in [44], on which a number... |

34 | A scalable quorum based location update scheme for routing in ad hoc wireless networks,” SITE
- Stojmenovic, Eduardo, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mism. Consequently, their solution is not easily adaptable to dynamic settings. In addition, their locality factors are somewhat large (polylogarithmic). The approach taken by several works, e.g., in =-=[51, 42, 13, 52]-=-, for quorum construction makes use of the planar structure of the network. It defines a write quorum for updating location information of a node as a column of some choice trajectory, and potentially... |

33 | On name resolution in peer-to-peer networks
- Li, Plaxton
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...connects to the closest node that has a level-(k+1) router whose identifier matches v.Rk[k − 1]||b. Geometric routing alone yields a cost which is proportional to the network diameter. The designs in =-=[38, 23]-=- make use of it to bound their routing costs by the network diameter. Step 2: Shadow routers. The next step is unique to the design of LAND in [5]. Its goal is to turn the expectation of geometric rou... |

29 | Compact routing on euclidian metrics
- Abraham, Malkhi
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...raham et al. in [2]. In LLS, costs are distance proportional both in the case of a location query, and in the case of an object move. • A bounded stretch plane routing algorithm by Abraham and Malkhi =-=[4]-=- with a constant node degree. Geometric networks We study the problem of designing a communication network and a compact routing scheme for two dimensional Euclidean metrics 1. Given is a set V of n n... |

28 | A space lower bound for routing in trees
- Fraigniaud, Gavoille
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ms of graphs. For example, routing in a tree is explored, e.g., in [18, 54], achieving optimal routing. This routing requires Õ(1) bits for local tables and Õ(1) bits for headers, and this is tight =-=[19]-=-. As for name independent routing, progress has been much slower. Initial results in [10] provide non-compact name independent routing with Õ(n3/2) total memory. Awerbuch and Peleg [11] were the firs... |

27 | O.: Compact routing with name independence
- Arias, Cowen, et al.
- 2006
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eg [11] were the first to show that constant-stretch is possible to achieve with o(n) memory per node, albeit with a large constant. Recently, Arias et al. significantly reduced the stretch factor in =-=[7]-=-, providing stretch-5 with Õ( √ n) memory per node. In [3], Abraham et al. close the gap and achieve stretch 3 for general graphs also with Õ( √ n) memory per node. Besides improving Arias et al. [7... |

26 |
Efficient content location in wireless ad hoc networks
- Tchakarov, Vaidya
- 2004
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...mism. Consequently, their solution is not easily adaptable to dynamic settings. In addition, their locality factors are somewhat large (polylogarithmic). The approach taken by several works, e.g., in =-=[51, 42, 13, 52]-=-, for quorum construction makes use of the planar structure of the network. It defines a write quorum for updating location information of a node as a column of some choice trajectory, and potentially... |

24 |
M.: A position-based multi-zone routing protocol for wide area mobile ad-hoc networks
- Amouris, Papavassiliou, et al.
- 1999
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... not proportional to the size of the movement. In addition, there are extreme cases in which read and write quorums might not intersect. The position based multi-zone routing method of Amouris et al. =-=[6]-=- stores location information about each node in geometrically increasing discs, each disc referencing the smaller disc that contains the node. When a node moves a distance 2i, it broadcasts an update ... |

23 | Facilitating Match-Making Service in Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks using Pseudo Quorum
- Aydin, Shen
- 2002
(Show Context)
Citation Context |