## Keyed Hash Functions (1996)

Venue: | in Cryptography: Policy and Algorithms Conference |

Citations: | 3 - 0 self |

### BibTeX

@INPROCEEDINGS{Bakhtiari96keyedhash,

author = {S. Bakhtiari and R. Safavi-naini and J. Pieprzyk},

title = {Keyed Hash Functions},

booktitle = {in Cryptography: Policy and Algorithms Conference},

year = {1996},

pages = {201--214},

publisher = {Springer-Verlag}

}

### OpenURL

### Abstract

. We give a new definition of keyed hash functions and show its relation with strongly universal hash functions and Cartesian authentication codes. We propose an algorithm for a secure keyed hash function and present preliminary result on its performance. The algorithm can be used for fast (about twice the speed of MD5) and secure message authentication. 1 Introduction Hash functions were introduced in early 1950's [20]. The original aim was to have functions that can uniformly map a large collection of messages into a small set of message digests (or hash values). A useful application of hash functions is for error detection. Appending message digest to the message allows detection of errors during transmission. In the receiving end, the hash value of the received message is recalculated and compared with the received hash value. If they do not match, an error has occurred. This detection is only for random errors. An active spoofer may intercept a message, modify it as he wishes, an...

### Citations

1138 | A Logic of Authentication - Burrows, Abadi, et al. - 1989 |

822 |
The MD4 message-digest algorithm
- Rivest
- 1991
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of a New Keyed Hash Function (KHF) In this section, construction of a new keyed hash function (KHF) is discussed. Desirable properties of this design are gained by including important features of MD5 =-=[27]-=- and HAVAL [32], nonlinear boolean functions that were proposed in [16], and some additional properties such as variable rotations (cf. Section 3.3). The nonlinear boolean functions, that are used in ... |

667 |
Universal classes of hash functions
- Carter, Wegman
- 1979
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ore efficient algorithm. The hash function presented in Section 3 justifies this argument. 2.1 Universal Hash Functions and K-Hash Functions Universal hash functions were defined by Carter and Wegman =-=[13]-=- in an attempt to provide an input independent average linear time algorithm for storage and retrieval of keys in associated memories. A class H of functions from a set A to a set B is called universa... |

329 |
New hash functions and their use in authentication and set equality
- Wegman, Carter
- 1981
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...lled universal 2 , if for all x and y in A, ffi H (x; y)sjHj=jBj, where jHj and jBj are the sizes of H and B, respectively, and ffi H (x; y) denotes the number of functions h 2 H with h(x) = h(y). In =-=[14]-=-, they extended their work and defined strongly universal n and almost strongly universal 2 , and showed their application to authentication. A class H of hash functions is strongly universal n (SUn )... |

111 |
Analysis and Design of Cryptographic Hash Functions
- Preneel
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...rtesian authentication code and hence the security criteria of the two should be equivalent. An important result of this observation is that we can give security criteria for keyed hash functions. In =-=[26]-=-, Preneel identified keyed hash functions by relating them to Message Authentication Codes (MAC), and in [6], a formal definition of keyed hash functions was given by Berson, Gong and Lamos. In this p... |

96 | Collision free hash functions and public key signature schemes - Damgard - 1988 |

65 | Links between Differential and Linear Cryptanalysis - Chabaud, Vaudenay - 1995 |

52 | HAVAL - A One-Way Hashing Algorithm with Variable Length of Output
- Zheng, Pieprzyk, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...Hash Function (KHF) In this section, construction of a new keyed hash function (KHF) is discussed. Desirable properties of this design are gained by including important features of MD5 [27] and HAVAL =-=[32]-=-, nonlinear boolean functions that were proposed in [16], and some additional properties such as variable rotations (cf. Section 3.3). The nonlinear boolean functions, that are used in this design, ar... |

44 | On Matsui’s Linear Cryptanalysis - Biham |

42 | an Introduction to Computer security,‖ Upper Saddle River NJ - Josef, Jennifer, et al. - 1989 |

35 | Cryptographic hash functions: a survey
- Bakhtiari, Safavi-Naini, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of authors. Hiding the initial vector of a hash function, appending a secret key to the message (to be hashed), and hashing followed by encryption are common techniques that are used for this purpose =-=[2, 3]-=-. However, the first attempt to formally define K-hash functions is due to Berson, Gong and Lamos. Definition1. (Berson, Gong and Lamos [6]) A function g() that maps a key and a second bit string to a... |

30 | Differential Cryptanalysis of FEAL and N-Hash - Biham, Shamir - 1991 |

28 | Differential Cryptanalysis of Snefru - Biham, Shamir - 1992 |

27 |
How to construct pseudorandom permutations and pseudorandom functions
- Luby, Racko
- 1988
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ction of other primitives, such as encryption functions, from K-hash functions. In [2], we have presented an encryption algorithm which is based on the scheme that was proposed by Luby and Rackoff in =-=[21]-=-. We have used a K-hash function to provide the one-wayness (based on a secret key). 2.4 Construction of Keyed Hash Functions Construction of keyed hash functions from encryption functions is the most... |

24 | The classification of hash functions
- Anderson
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... secrecy) is another example. Other general requirements for keyed hash functions are Complementation Freedom, Addition Freedom, Multiplication Freedom, Correlation Freedom. The reader is referred to =-=[1]-=- for more details about these general requirements. 3 Design of a New Keyed Hash Function (KHF) In this section, construction of a new keyed hash function (KHF) is discussed. Desirable properties of t... |

23 | Cryptanalysis of multiples modes of operation - Biham - 1998 |

21 | Sadeghiyan B., Design of Hash Algorithms - Pieprzyk - 1993 |

14 | The Design of Substitution-Permutation Networks Resistant to Differential and Linear Cryptanalysis - Heys, Tavares - 1994 |

8 | On the Applicability of Differential Cryptanalysis to Hash Functions," lecture at - Biham - 1992 |

7 | Differential cryptanalysis mod 2 with applications to MD5 - Berson - 1992 |

6 | Practical and secure message authentication
- Bakhtiari, Safavi-Naini, et al.
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...of authors. Hiding the initial vector of a hash function, appending a secret key to the message (to be hashed), and hashing followed by encryption are common techniques that are used for this purpose =-=[2, 3]-=-. However, the first attempt to formally define K-hash functions is due to Berson, Gong and Lamos. Definition1. (Berson, Gong and Lamos [6]) A function g() that maps a key and a second bit string to a... |

6 |
Collisionful Hash Functions
- Secure
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ult of this observation is that we can give security criteria for keyed hash functions. In [26], Preneel identified keyed hash functions by relating them to Message Authentication Codes (MAC), and in =-=[6]-=-, a formal definition of keyed hash functions was given by Berson, Gong and Lamos. In this paper, we give a new definition of keyed hash functions (K-hash function), or authentication hash functions, ... |

6 |
The Art of Computer Programming: Searching and Sorting, volume 3
- Knuth
- 1973
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...eliminary result on its performance. The algorithm can be used for fast (about twice the speed of MD5) and secure message authentication. 1 Introduction Hash functions were introduced in early 1950's =-=[20]-=-. The original aim was to have functions that can uniformly map a large collection of messages into a small set of message digests (or hash values). A useful application of hash functions is for error... |

5 |
nonequivalence versus nonlinearity
- Charnes, Pieprzyk, et al.
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...ew keyed hash function (KHF) is discussed. Desirable properties of this design are gained by including important features of MD5 [27] and HAVAL [32], nonlinear boolean functions that were proposed in =-=[16]-=-, and some additional properties such as variable rotations (cf. Section 3.3). The nonlinear boolean functions, that are used in this design, are (C language notations): f i (A; B;C;D;E) = 8 ? ? ? ? !... |

5 | The Application of Claw Free Functions in Cryptography - Damgard - 1988 |

5 | cryptanalysis for DES cipher - Linear - 1994 |

4 | Meet-in-the-middle attack on digital signature schemes - Ohta, Koyama - 1990 |

3 |
Combinatorial characterization of A-codes with r-fold security
- Tombak, Safavi-Naini
- 1995
(Show Context)
Citation Context ...attack is P r = 1=q. A Cartesian authentication code provides r-fold security if P i = 1=q; i = 0; \Delta \Delta \Delta ; r. Cartesian A-codes with r-fold security are equivalent to orthogonal arrays =-=[28]-=-. In [30], van Trung has shown that SUn 's are equivalent to orthogonal arrays and hence we have the following proposition. Proposition 4. Cartesian A-codes with r-fold security are equivalent to SUn ... |

3 | Principles for Designing Secure Block Ciphers and One-Way Hash Functions
- Zheng
- 1990
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... example of the first construction is given in [3] and it is shown that the resulting algorithm satisfies Definition 1. Different examples of the construction from block ciphers are given in [26] and =-=[31]-=-. This paper gives an example of the construction from scratch (Section 3). The benefit of this approach is the increased speed that is gained by effectively using the secret key in the hashing proces... |

2 | Practical Message Authentication Schemes - Bakhtiari, Safavi-Naini, et al. - 1995 |

1 |
Universal Hashing and Unconditional Authentication Codes
- Trung
- 1993
(Show Context)
Citation Context ... P r = 1=q. A Cartesian authentication code provides r-fold security if P i = 1=q; i = 0; \Delta \Delta \Delta ; r. Cartesian A-codes with r-fold security are equivalent to orthogonal arrays [28]. In =-=[30]-=-, van Trung has shown that SUn 's are equivalent to orthogonal arrays and hence we have the following proposition. Proposition 4. Cartesian A-codes with r-fold security are equivalent to SUn 's. A num... |